How to format your references using the Progress in Materials Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Materials Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russell JF. If a job is worth doing, it is worth doing twice. Nature 2013;496:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yan J, Aldrich RW. LRRC26 auxiliary protein allows BK channel activation at resting voltage without calcium. Nature 2010;466:513–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pascoli V, Turiault M, Lüscher C. Reversal of cocaine-evoked synaptic potentiation resets drug-induced adaptive behaviour. Nature 2011;481:71–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
O’Connor JM, Stoffers P, Wijbrans JR, Shannon PM, Morrissey T. Evidence from episodic seamount volcanism for pulsing of the Iceland plume in the past 70 Myr. Nature 2000;408:954–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barkham R. Real Estate and Globalisation. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Megiddo N, Xu Y, Zhu B, editors. Algorithmic Applications in Management: First International Conference, AAIM 2005, Xian, China, June 22-25, 2005. Proceedings. vol. 3521. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Kylliäinen JP, Ahonen T, Nurmi J. General-Purpose Embedded Processor Cores – The COFFEE RISC Example. In: Nurmi J, editor. Processor Design: System-on-Chip Computing for ASICs and FPGAs, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007, p. 83–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Materials Science.

Blog post
Andrew E. ‘Food Comas’, Or Why Eating Sometimes Makes You Sleepy. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: Government and Industry Partners Face Substantial Challenges in Developing New DOD Space Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Heatlie JM. Effects of Simulation on Senior Nursing Students’ Patient Safety Competence: A Quantitative Study. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR. Expressive Flair in a New York Debut. New York Times 2016:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Materials Science
AbbreviationProg. Mater. Sci.
ISSN (print)0079-6425
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

Other styles