How to format your references using the Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hopkins PF. Astrophysics: stars fight back. Nature. 2014;516:44–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Thompson PM, Ollason JC. Lagged effects of ocean climate change on fulmar population dynamics. Nature. 2001;413:417–20.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Powell KI, Chase JM, Knight TM. Invasive plants have scale-dependent effects on diversity by altering species-area relationships. Science. 2013;339:316–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gierliński M, Middleton M, Ward M, Done C. A periodicity of approximately 1 hour in X-ray emission from the active galaxy RE J1034+396. Nature. 2008;455:369–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Medhurst D. A Brief and Practical Guide to EU Law. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Bonifacio GT, editor. Feminism and Migration: Cross-Cultural Engagements. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Marcedone A, Orlandi C. Obfuscation ⇒ (IND-CPA Security $\not\Rightarrow$ Circular Security). In: Abdalla M, Prisco RD, editors. Security and Cryptography for Networks: 9th International Conference, SCN 2014, Amalfi, Italy, September 3-5, 2014 Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 77–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports.

Blog post
1. Fang J. How Do Mosquitoes Walk On Water? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Federal Government Making Progress But Critical Issues Must Still Be Addressed to Minimize Disruptions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Apr. Report No.: T-AIMD-99-144.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hong PK. Stomach cancer diet education and screening awareness in East Asian American women [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Qiu L. If ‘Looking for Accuracy,’ C.B.O. Is Fine Place to Start. New York Times. 2017 Mar 9;A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Otorhinolaryngology Reports
AbbreviationCurr. Otorhinolaryngol. Rep.
ISSN (online)2167-583X

Other styles