How to format your references using the Progress in Energy and Combustion Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Estrada-Oyuela R. Copenhagen needs a strong lead negotiator. Nature 2009;461:1056–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elowitz MB, Leibler S. A synthetic oscillatory network of transcriptional regulators. Nature 2000;403:335–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Normark S, Nilsson C, Normark BH. Microbiology. A pathogen attacks while keeping up defense. Science 2005;307:1211–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pan F, Sun L, Kardian DB, Whartenby KA, Pardoll DM, Liu JO. Feedback inhibition of calcineurin and Ras by a dual inhibitory protein Carabin. Nature 2007;445:433–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Olofsson P. Probabilities. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Shiver W. 7 Steps to Sales Force Transformation: Driving Sustainable Change in Your Organization. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Hardin CS, Taylor AD. The Denumerable Setting: One-Way Visibility. In: Taylor AD, editor. The Mathematics of Coordinated Inference: A Study of Generalized Hat Problems, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013, p. 29–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Energy and Combustion Science.

Blog post
Taub B. Our Brains Are Naturally Prejudiced Against Minorities, Study Finds. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. New Alien Identification System--Little Help in Stopping Illegal Aliens. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gu P. Advanced Nonlinear Control and Estimation Methods for AC Power Generation Systems. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. 6 Days. New York Times 2017:C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Energy and Combustion Science
AbbreviationProg. Energy Combust. Sci.
ISSN (print)0360-1285
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Energy Engineering and Power Technology
Fuel Technology

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