How to format your references using the Progress in Energy and Combustion Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zehr JP. EVOLUTION. How single cells work together. Science 2015;349:1163–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhuo S, Ni M. Label-free and real-time imaging of dehydration-induced DNA conformational changes in cellular nucleus using second harmonic microscopy. Sci Rep 2014;4:7416.
A journal article with 3 authors
Davidson EM, Frothingham R, Cook-Deegan R. Science and security. Practical experiences in dual-use review. Science 2007;316:1432–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lekshmy PR, Midhun M, Ramesh R, Jani RA. 18O depletion in monsoon rain relates to large scale organized convection rather than the amount of rainfall. Sci Rep 2014;4:5661.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sarisky D. Scriptural Interpretation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Corona G, Jannini EA, Maggi M, editors. Emotional, Physical and Sexual Abuse: Impact in Children and Social Minorities. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Parsi MA. Cholangioscopy and Pancreatoscopy: Their Role in Benign and Malignant Disease. In: Adler DG, editor. Advanced Pancreaticobiliary Endoscopy, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 51–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Energy and Combustion Science.

Blog post
Fang J. Birds Camouflage Nests Using Matching Colors. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Management of Research and Development in Electronics-Communications Equipment Needs Improvement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whitbeck DC. Mapping of Sonoran Desert vegetation communities of San Cristobal Valley and southern Sentinel Plains, Barry M. Goldwater Range and variables influencing route proliferation in the Barry M. Goldwater Range’s San Cristobal Valley. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. A.B.A., or Something Unlike It. New York Times 2013:SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Energy and Combustion Science
AbbreviationProg. Energy Combust. Sci.
ISSN (print)0360-1285
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Energy Engineering and Power Technology
Fuel Technology

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