How to format your references using the Progress in Energy and Combustion Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fessenden M. The cell menagerie: human immune profiling. Nature 2015;525:409–11.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peebles PJE, Unruh WG. Obituary: John Wheeler (1911-2008). Nature 2008;453:50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gillespie AR, Montgomery DR, Mushkin A. Planetary science: are there active glaciers on Mars? Nature 2005;438:E9-10; discussion E10.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schmid B, Ribbe MW, Einsle O, Yoshida M, Thomas LM, Dean DR, et al. Structure of a cofactor-deficient nitrogenase MoFe protein. Science 2002;296:352–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rodgers N. Learning to Reason. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2000.
An edited book
Boske C, Osanloo A, editors. Students, Teachers, and Leaders Addressing Bullying in Schools. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Saddik AE, Orozco M, Eid M, Cha J. Machine Haptics. In: Orozco M, Eid M, Cha J, editors. Haptics Technologies: Bringing Touch to Multimedia, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 67–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Energy and Combustion Science.

Blog post
Andrew E. We Could Find Alien Life, But Politicians Don’t Have The Will. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DOD Space Systems: Additional Knowledge Would Better Support Decisions about Disaggregating Large Satellites. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gan K. A Parity-Violating Spin Rotation Measurement of Transversely Polarized Cold Neutrons Through a Liquid Helium Target. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Latin, Country, Reggaeton: Great Range in Mets’ Playlists. New York Times 2016:SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Energy and Combustion Science
AbbreviationProg. Energy Combust. Sci.
ISSN (print)0360-1285
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Energy Engineering and Power Technology
Fuel Technology

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