How to format your references using the Laparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Laparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Jacobs M. A career is like a love affair. Science. 2015;348(6230):150.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Smith AE, Helenius A. How viruses enter animal cells. Science. 2004;304(5668):237-242.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Karlseder J, Smogorzewska A, de Lange T. Senescence induced by altered telomere state, not telomere loss. Science. 2002;295(5564):2446-2449.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Parker AR, McPhedran RC, McKenzie DR, Botten LC, Nicorovici NA. Photonic engineering. Aphrodite’s iridescence. Nature. 2001;409(6816):36-37.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Remy J-G, Letamendia C. LTE Services. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Guerrieri A, Loscri V, Rovella A, Fortino G, eds. Management of Cyber Physical Objects in the Future Internet of Things: Methods, Architectures and Applications. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Sun Y, Lin Y. Modeling Paired Objects and Their Interaction. In: Sun Y, Behal A, Chung C-KR, eds. New Development in Robot Vision. Cognitive Systems Monographs. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015:73-87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Laparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Davis J. Alaskan Bears And Wolves In Wildlife Refuges To Be Hunted Again After Republican Vote. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Studies of U.S. Universities’ Research Equipment Needs Inconclusive. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Blalock JM. The Links at St Andrews, Scotland A phenomenological hermeneutic exploration of golf’s primordial place. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kelly D. In Short: Fiction. New York Times. December 31, 1989:712.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLaparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery
ISSN (print)2468-9009
Scope

Other styles