How to format your references using the Laparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Laparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Kristoufek L. BitCoin meets Google Trends and Wikipedia: quantifying the relationship between phenomena of the Internet era. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3415.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Webby RJ, Webster RG. Are we ready for pandemic influenza? Science. 2003;302(5650):1519-1522.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Amselem E, Sadiq M, Bourennane M. Experimental bound entanglement through a Pauli channel. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1966.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Carter SG, Birkedal V, Wang CS, et al. Quantum coherence in an optical modulator. Science. 2005;310(5748):651-653.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Burrows GE, Tyrl RJ. Toxic Plants of North America. Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Green K, Mews C, eds. Virtue Ethics for Women 1250-1500. Vol 69. Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Chailleux S, Moyson S. The French Ban on Hydraulic Fracturing and the Attempts to Reverse It: Social Mobilization, Professional Forums, and Coalition Strategies. In: Weible CM, Heikkila T, Ingold K, Fischer M, eds. Policy Debates on Hydraulic Fracturing: Comparing Coalition Politics in North America and Europe. Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016:115-145.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Laparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Evans K. Scott Pruitt Blocks Scheduled Ban On Pesticide Despite EPA’s Evidence It Damages Kids’ Brains. IFLScience. Published April 3, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/scott-pruitt-blocks-scheduled-ban-on-pesticide-despite-epas-evidence-it-damages-kids-brains/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Millennium Challenge Corporation: Results of Transportation Infrastructure Projects in Seven Countries. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Delaney DC. Undergraduate social work students’ perceptions regarding hospice and end-of-life care. Published online 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Pilon M. Table Tennis Beside a Bank, and Other Contests Intended to ‘Reclaim’ Midtown. New York Times. May 19, 2012:D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLaparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery
ISSN (print)2468-9009
Scope

Other styles