How to format your references using the Laparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Laparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Friedman JM. Obesity in the new millennium. Nature. 2000;404(6778):632-634.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Miyamichi K, Luo L. Neuroscience. Brain wiring by presorting axons. Science. 2009;325(5940):544-545.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Shimizu GKH, Taylor JM, Kim S. Chemistry. Proton conduction with metal-organic frameworks. Science. 2013;341(6144):354-355.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Galy V, France-Lanord C, Beyssac O, Faure P, Kudrass H, Palhol F. Efficient organic carbon burial in the Bengal fan sustained by the Himalayan erosional system. Nature. 2007;450(7168):407-410.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Al-Shuhail AA, Al-Dossary SA, Mousa WA. Seismic Data Interpretation Using Digital Image Processing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1.
Barceló JA, Del Castillo F, eds. Simulating Prehistoric and Ancient Worlds. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
García-Magariño I, Gómez-Sanz JJ, Fuentes-Fernández R. Model Transformation By-Example: An Algorithm for Generating Many-to-Many Transformation Rules in Several Model Transformation Languages. In: Paige RF, ed. Theory and Practice of Model Transformations: Second International Conference, ICMT 2009, Zurich, Switzerland, June 29-30, 2009. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009:52-66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Laparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. Why European Fruit Flies Hold Their Liquor Better Than Tropical Ones. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. NASA Procurement: Proposed Changes to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Contract. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Liu Y. Analysis on the distinct path in a star interconnection network. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Baker P. Investigation Takes On Gravity In Dangerous Phase for Trump. New York Times. October 30, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLaparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery
ISSN (print)2468-9009
Scope

Other styles