How to format your references using the Laparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Laparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Coscia M. Average is boring: how similarity kills a meme’s success. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6477.
A journal article with 2 authors
May M, Brody H. Nature Index 2015 Global. Nature. 2015;522(7556):S1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aurelio O, Hall DH, Hobert O. Immunoglobulin-domain proteins required for maintenance of ventral nerve cord organization. Science. 2002;295(5555):686-690.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Thornton JA, Kercher JP, Riedel TP, et al. A large atomic chlorine source inferred from mid-continental reactive nitrogen chemistry. Nature. 2010;464(7286):271-274.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fisher RB, Breckon TP, Dawson-Howe K, et al. Dictionary of Computer Vision and Image Processing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Nijkamp FP, Parnham MJ, eds. Principles of Immunopharmacology: 3rd Revised and Extended Edition. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Dempsey GT, Wang W, Zhuang X. Fluorescence Imaging at Sub-Diffraction-Limit Resolution with Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy. In: Hinterdorfer P, Oijen A, eds. Handbook of Single-Molecule Biophysics. New York, NY: Springer US; 2009:95-127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Laparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Watch SpaceX’s Rocket Explode During Return Experiment. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle: Action Needed to Improve Visibility into Cost, Schedule, and Capacity to Resolve Technical Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bailoor S. Implicit-Explicit Time stepping for a Two-Dimensional Inviscid Fluid-Structure Interaction Solver. 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Vecsey G. Relatives of Flight 93 Victims Run to Keep Memories Alive. New York Times. November 3, 2011:B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLaparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery
ISSN (print)2468-9009

Other styles