How to format your references using the Laparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Laparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lidin S. Imaging techniques. Mapping bond orientations with polarized x-rays. Science. 2014;344(6187):969-970.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin T, Luo ZX. PALEONTOLOGY: Homoplasy in the Mammalian Ear. Science. 2005;307(5711):861-862.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nguyen VQ, Co C, Li JJ. Cyclin-dependent kinases prevent DNA re-replication through multiple mechanisms. Nature. 2001;411(6841):1068-1073.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Conley DJ, Paerl HW, Howarth RW, et al. Ecology. Controlling eutrophication: nitrogen and phosphorus. Science. 2009;323(5917):1014-1015.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pasternak JJ. An Introduction to Human Molecular Genetics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Demmig-Adams B, Adams WW, Mattoo AK, eds. Photoprotection, Photoinhibition, Gene Regulation, and Environment. Vol 21. Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Hommes C. Heterogeneous Agent Models: two simple examples. In: Lines M, ed. Nonlinear Dynamical Systems in Economics. CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences. Springer; 2005:131-164.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Laparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Does Fracking Cause Cancer And Infertility? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Reagan National Airport: Capacity to Handle Additional Flights and Impact on Other Area Airports. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jones G. The Impact of Song on Repeated Reading: An Examination of Comprehension, Fluency, and Engagement with Texts of Hispanic Second Graders in a Title I Urban School. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lehman S. Open Records Close the Case. New York Times. March 9, 2017:A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLaparoscopic, Endoscopic and Robotic Surgery
ISSN (print)2468-9009

Other styles