How to format your references using the Progress in Biomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Biomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Conner JK (2002) Genetic mechanisms of floral trait correlations in a natural population. Nature 420:407–410
A journal article with 2 authors
Maheshwari V, Saraf RF (2006) High-resolution thin-film device to sense texture by touch. Science 312:1501–1504
A journal article with 3 authors
Mulligan CJ, Kitchen A, Miyamoto MM (2006) Comment on “Population size does not influence mitochondrial genetic diversity in animals.” Science 314:1390
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ho K-I, Huang C-H, Liao J-H, et al (2014) Fluorinated graphene as high performance dielectric materials and the applications for graphene nanoelectronics. Sci Rep 4:5893

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johnson DW, Woodward JL (2010) Release. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Young RA (2011) Transition to Adulthood: Action, Projects, and Counseling. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Sazeides Y, Moustakas A, Constantinides K, Kleanthous M (2011) Improving Branch Prediction by Considering Affectors and Affectees Correlations. In: Stenström P (ed) Transactions on High-Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers III. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 69–88

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Biomaterials.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) This Sarlacc-Like Creature Existed 520 Million Years Before Star Wars. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Distance Learning: Opportunities Exist for DOD to Capitalize on Services’ Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abrahamian A (2012) Diagnosis and treatment of childhood depression: A resource for pediatricians. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1992) THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; As Race Looks Tighter, Theme Is Truth and Trust. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Conner 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Conner 2002; Maheshwari and Saraf 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maheshwari and Saraf 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Ho et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Biomaterials
AbbreviationProg. Biomater.
ISSN (print)2194-0509
ISSN (online)2194-0517

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