How to format your references using the Progress in Biomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Biomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chiang Y-M (2010) Materials science. Building a better battery. Science 330:1485–1486
A journal article with 2 authors
Pfisterer AB, Schmid B (2002) Diversity-dependent production can decrease the stability of ecosystem functioning. Nature 416:84–86
A journal article with 3 authors
Postma E, Griffith SC, Brooks R (2006) Evolutionary genetics: evolution of mate choice in the wild. Nature 444:E16; discussion E16-7
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ceballos G, Ehrlich PR, Soberón J, et al (2005) Global mammal conservation: what must we manage? Science 309:603–607

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wiesmann U, Choi IS, Dombrowski E-M (2006) Fundamentals of Biological Wastewater Treatment. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Briscoe J (2014) Nanostructured Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Cherry MJ (2012) Ritual as Education Concerning Social Space and Time. In: Solomon D, Fan R, Lo P-C (eds) Ritual and the Moral Life: Reclaiming the Tradition. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 53–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Biomaterials.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Is Nuclear Power Zero-Emission? No, But It Isn’t High-Emission Either. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Telecommunications: FCC Should Evaluate the Efficiency and Effectiveness of the Lifeline Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liu S (2010) Methods for generating addressable focus cues in stereoscopic displays. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2001) A New Battleground for an Old War: The Internet. New York Times 1410

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chiang 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Pfisterer and Schmid 2002; Chiang 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pfisterer and Schmid 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Ceballos et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Biomaterials
AbbreviationProg. Biomater.
ISSN (print)2194-0509
ISSN (online)2194-0517

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