How to format your references using the Progress in Biomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Biomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van Woesik R (2004) Comment on “Coral reef death during the 1997 Indian Ocean dipole linked to Indonesian wildfires.” Science 303:1297; author reply 1297
A journal article with 2 authors
Western D, Behrensmeyer AK (2009) Bone assemblages track animal community structure over 40 years in an African savanna ecosystem. Science 324:1061–1064
A journal article with 3 authors
Fehr E, Bernhard H, Rockenbach B (2008) Egalitarianism in young children. Nature 454:1079–1083
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Vecchi GA, Soden BJ, Wittenberg AT, et al (2006) Weakening of tropical Pacific atmospheric circulation due to anthropogenic forcing. Nature 441:73–76

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alvarez PJJ, Illman WA (2005) Bioremediation and Natural Attenuation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Serra R, Cucchiara R (eds) (2009) AI*IA 2009: Emergent Perspectives in Artificial Intelligence: XIth International Conference of the Italian Association for Artificial Intelligence Reggio Emilia, Italy, December 9-12, 2009 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Lory P, Liedel M (2012) Accelerating the Secure Distributed Computation of the Mean by a Chebyshev Expansion. In: Susilo W, Mu Y, Seberry J (eds) Information Security and Privacy: 17th Australasian Conference, ACISP 2012, Wollongong, NSW, Australia, July 9-11, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 57–70

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Biomaterials.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017) Old Picture Reveals Enceladus’ Geysers Not A New Phenomenon. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Title I Preschool Education: More Children Served, but Gauging Effect on School Readiness Difficult. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Plosky WD (2017) An Investment Case for Addressing Social Drivers of Structural Stigma and Discrimination Against Refugees in Resource-Poor Urban Areas. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C (2007) This Affordable Housing Would Stay Affordable. New York Times WE9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (van Woesik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (van Woesik 2004; Western and Behrensmeyer 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Western and Behrensmeyer 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Vecchi et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Biomaterials
AbbreviationProg. Biomater.
ISSN (print)2194-0509
ISSN (online)2194-0517

Other styles