How to format your references using the Progress in Biomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Biomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morduch J (2011) Economics. Why finance matters. Science 332:1271–1272
A journal article with 2 authors
Wachsman ED, Lee KT (2011) Lowering the temperature of solid oxide fuel cells. Science 334:935–939
A journal article with 3 authors
McCauley E, Nelson WA, Nisbet RM (2008) Small-amplitude cycles emerge from stage-structured interactions in Daphnia-algal systems. Nature 455:1240–1243
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Xu X, Zhou Z, Wang X, et al (2003) Four-winged dinosaurs from China. Nature 421:335–340

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heimann RB (2010) Classic and Advanced Ceramics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Feinglos MN, Bethel MA (eds) (2008) Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Evidence-Based Approach to Practical Management. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ
A chapter in an edited book
Laron Z (2011) Diagnosis of Laron Syndrome. In: Laron Z, Kopchick J (eds) Laron Syndrome - From Man to Mouse: Lessons from Clinical and Experimental Experience. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 27–28

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Biomaterials.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Can Invertebrates Feel Pain? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Computer Reservation Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McClenahan A (2017) The Impact of Media Promulgated Fear on the Psyche: Love Will Prevail. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2010) Sports Take Him Away; Smells Bring Him Home. New York Times SP9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Morduch 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Morduch 2011; Wachsman and Lee 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wachsman and Lee 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Xu et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Biomaterials
AbbreviationProg. Biomater.
ISSN (print)2194-0509
ISSN (online)2194-0517

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