How to format your references using the Progress in Biomaterials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Biomaterials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sirocko F (2003) Paleoclimate. What drove past teleconnections? Science 301:1336–1337
A journal article with 2 authors
Lambeck K, Chappell J (2001) Sea level change through the last glacial cycle. Science 292:679–686
A journal article with 3 authors
Gonsamo A, Chen JM, Wu C (2013) Citizen Science: linking the recent rapid advances of plant flowering in Canada with climate variability. Sci Rep 3:2239
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mirica LM, Vance M, Rudd DJ, et al (2005) Tyrosinase reactivity in a model complex: an alternative hydroxylation mechanism. Science 308:1890–1892

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Micouin P (2014) Model-Based Systems Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Erdmann G, Kneuer M (eds) (2011) Regression of Democracy?: Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft Comparative Governance and Politics. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden
A chapter in an edited book
Kuks JBM (2009) Clinical Presentation and Epidemiology of Myasthenia Gravis. In: Kaminski HJ (ed) Myasthenia Gravis and Related Disorders. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 79–94

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Biomaterials.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Depression Associated With Higher Risk Of Developing Parkinson’s. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008) Aviation Security: Transportation Security Administration Has Strengthened Planning to Guide Investments in Key Aviation Security Programs, but More Work Remains. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Toothaker RD (2014) A phenomenological study of millennial students and traditional pedagogies. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly DA (2002) Weekender | Bennington, Vt. New York Times F6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sirocko 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Lambeck and Chappell 2001; Sirocko 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lambeck and Chappell 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Mirica et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Biomaterials
AbbreviationProg. Biomater.
ISSN (print)2194-0509
ISSN (online)2194-0517

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