How to format your references using the Annals of Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Sakmar TP. Biochemistry. Redder than red. Science. 2012 Dec 7;338(6112):1299–300.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Norris DJ, Aydil ES. Materials science. Getting Moore from solar cells. Science. 2012 Nov 2;338(6107):625–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Hu Y, Lee CC, Ribbe MW. Extending the carbon chain: hydrocarbon formation catalyzed by vanadium/molybdenum nitrogenases. Science. 2011 Aug 5;333(6043):753–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Siretanu I, Ebeling D, Andersson MP, Stipp SLS, Philipse A, Stuart MC, et al. Direct observation of ionic structure at solid-liquid interfaces: a deep look into the Stern Layer. Sci Rep. 2014 May 22;4:4956.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Fryirs KA, Brierley GJ. Geomorphic Analysis of River Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Masson P. Sociology in France after 1945. Schrecker C, editor. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. VIII, 91 p. (Sociology Transformed).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Adhikari A, Ramachandrarao P, Pedrycz W. Enhancing Quality of Knowledge Synthesized from Multi-database Mining. In: Ramachandrarao P, Pedrycz W, editors. Developing Multi-Database Mining Applications. London: Springer; 2010. p. 71–94. (Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Internal Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Confirmation of Human Neanderthal Interbreeding [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/confirmation-human-neanderthal-interbreeding/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education: Governmentwide Strategy Needed to Better Manage Overlapping Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013 Apr. Report No.: GAO-13-529T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Fearrington ND. The relationship between fathers’ pre -natal involvement with the mother and post -natal involvement with the child(ren) [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Wagner J. Rookie Succeeds With Two Motivations: Playoff Race and His Student Loans. New York Times. 2016 Sep 12;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Internal Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0003-4819
ISSN (online)1539-3704
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Internal Medicine

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