How to format your references using the Annals of Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weinberg DH. Astronomy. Mapping the large-scale structure of the universe. Science. 2005 Jul 22;309(5734):564–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoffmann DE, Rothenberg KH. Science and law. When should judges admit or compel genetic tests? Science. 2005 Oct 14;310(5746):241–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hayashi K, Hasegawa J, Matsunaga S. The boundary of the meristematic and elongation zones in roots: endoreduplication precedes rapid cell expansion. Sci Rep. 2013 Oct 14;3:2723.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Moisan N, Malinowski G, Mauchain J, Hehn M, Vodungbo B, Lüning J, et al. Investigating the role of superdiffusive currents in laser induced demagnetization of ferromagnets with nanoscale magnetic domains. Sci Rep. 2014 Apr 11;4:4658.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonneau D, Fatu A, Souchet D. Thermo-Hydrodynamic Lubrication in Hydrodynamic Bearings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Ruppert H, Kappas M, Ibendorf J, editors. Sustainable Bioenergy Production - An Integrated Approach. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. XVI, 451 p. 111 illus., 81 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Yue J. Uplift Modeling Application and Methodology in Database Marketing. In: Hu M, Liu Y, Lin J, editors. Topics in Applied Statistics: 2012 Symposium of the International Chinese Statistical Association. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 49–60. (Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Internal Medicine.

Blog post
Davis J. Researchers Create A Computer That Works Using Water [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Test Facility: Civilian Agency Use of Supercomputers Not Feasible. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Dec. Report No.: AIMD-95-28.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Saifman HP. Millennial Nurse Manager Perspectives on Their Leadership Roles in the Hospital Setting: A Phenomenological Inquiry [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hanc J. Ideas and Goals, Yes. Walls, No. New York Times. 2017 Mar 15;F42.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Internal Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0003-4819
ISSN (online)1539-3704
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Internal Medicine

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