How to format your references using the Annals of Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goodman S. Geneticist takes top job at museum. Nature. 2002 Jan 24;415(6870):351.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weatheritt RJ, Babu MM. Evolution. The hidden codes that shape protein evolution. Science. 2013 Dec 13;342(6164):1325–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Begun DR, Richmond BG, Strait DS. Comment on “Origin of human bipedalism as an adaptation for locomotion on flexible branches.” Science. 2007 Nov 16;318(5853):1066; author reply 1066.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Porenta T, Copar S, Ackerman PJ, Pandey MB, Varney MCM, Smalyukh II, et al. Topological switching and orbiting dynamics of colloidal spheres dressed with chiral nematic solitons. Sci Rep. 2014 Dec 5;4:7337.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cabaniss DL, Cherry S, Douglas CJ, Schwartz A. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Wellstead P, Cloutier M, editors. Systems Biology of Parkinson’s Disease. New York, NY: Springer; 2012. XVI, 176 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Mokhtari M, Martaj N. Chapitre 4 Modélisation physique par le langage Simscape. In: Martaj N, editor. Electronique Appliquée, Electromécanique sous Simscape & SimPowerSystems (Matlab/Simulink). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 295–325.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Internal Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew D. Dinosaur Embryo Returned To China, But Many Fossils Fall Victim To Illegal Trade And Poor Protection [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security Administration: Improved Planning and Performance Measures Are Needed to Help Ensure Successful Technology Modernization. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Apr. Report No.: GAO-12-495.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Busalacchi NM. Access to healthcare: Disparities between the non-elderly adult population [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barry E. Attacks Revive Russian Concern That Guerrilla Warfare Will Spread. New York Times. 2010 Mar 30;A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Internal Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0003-4819
ISSN (online)1539-3704
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Internal Medicine

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