How to format your references using the Annals of Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Evarts EC. Lithium batteries: To the limits of lithium. Nature. 2015 Oct 29;526(7575):S93-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Butterworth B, Kovas Y. Understanding neurocognitive developmental disorders can improve education for all. Science. 2013 Apr 19;340(6130):300–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Abel T, Bryan GL, Norman ML. The formation of the first star in the Universe. Science. 2002 Jan 4;295(5552):93–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Basu U, Chaudhuri J, Alpert C, Dutt S, Ranganath S, Li G, et al. The AID antibody diversification enzyme is regulated by protein kinase A phosphorylation. Nature. 2005 Nov 24;438(7067):508–11.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lovejoy DA. Neuroendocrinology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Toth FL, editor. Energy for Development: Resources, Technologies, Environment. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. XX, 239 p. 102 illus., 87 illus. in color. (Environment & Policy; vol. 54).
A chapter in an edited book
Fox D. Canada: Community, Reintegration, Restoration and Aboriginal Responses. In: Arnull E, Fox D, editors. Cultural Perspectives on Youth Justice: Connecting Theory, Policy and International Practice. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 111–30. (Research report no. 12).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Internal Medicine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. We Just Learned A Lot Of Unexpected Things About Jupiter [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Status of the Water Industry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Apr. Report No.: AIMD-99-151.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Enriquez M. Music therapy to hospice patients of Visiting Nurse Association of Inland Counties: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. IN GAZA, PEACE MEETS PATHOLOGY. New York Times. 1994 Nov 27;656.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Internal Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0003-4819
ISSN (online)1539-3704
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Internal Medicine

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