How to format your references using the Annals of Internal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Annals of Internal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burke D. Time for voices to be raised. Nature. 2000 Jun 1;405(6786):509.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grant PR, Grant BR. Evolutionary biology: speciation undone. Nature. 2014 Mar 13;507(7491):178–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mayr C, Hemann MT, Bartel DP. Disrupting the pairing between let-7 and Hmga2 enhances oncogenic transformation. Science. 2007 Mar 16;315(5818):1576–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hu QH, Sun LG, Xie ZQ, Emslie SD, Liu XD. Increase in penguin populations during the Little Ice Age in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2472.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Villarroel A. Practical Clinical Epidemiology for the Veterinarian. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Carnell J. Pro Apache Struts with Ajax. Harrop R, Mittal K, editors. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2007. XXII, 528 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Maglyas A, Smolander K. Eight Types of Relationships between Stakeholders in ERP Development Networks: A Case Study of Three Large Enterprises. In: Commisso TH, Nørbjerg J, Pries-Heje J, editors. Nordic Contributions in IS Research: 5th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2014, Ringsted, Denmark, August 10-13, 2014 Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 58–73. (Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Annals of Internal Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz S. Award-Winning Chemist Works For Free After Funding Cutbacks [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. IRS Information Systems: Weaknesses Increase Risk of Fraud and Impair Reliability of Management Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Sep. Report No.: AIMD-93-34.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hidalgo F. Light of Hope Recuperative Care Center, LLC: A Business Plan [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belson K, Pilon M. Marathon Organizers Offer Refund or Future Race. New York Times. 2012 Dec 21;B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleAnnals of Internal Medicine
AbbreviationAnn. Intern. Med.
ISSN (print)0003-4819
ISSN (online)1539-3704
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Internal Medicine

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