How to format your references using the Comparative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kroon H de. Ecology. How do roots interact? Science (New York, N.Y.). 2007 December 7;318:;1562–1563.
A journal article with 2 authors
Osborne I, Coontz R. Quantum wonderland. Introduction to special issue. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2008 February 29;319:;1201.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pelli DG, Farell B, Moore DC. The remarkable inefficiency of word recognition. Nature. 2003 June 12;423:;752–756.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Fragner A, Göppl M, Fink JM, Baur M, Bianchetti R, Leek PJ, Blais A, Wallraff A. Resolving vacuum fluctuations in an electrical circuit by measuring the Lamb shift. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2008 November 28;322:;1357–1360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith MC, Sherman DM. Goat Medicine. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
An edited book
Bai H. Distributed Multiple Description Coding: Principles, Algorithms and Systems. (Wang A, Zhao Y, Pan J-S, Abraham A, editors.). London: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Cristini C, Cesa-Bianchi M, Cesa-Bianchi G, Porro A. Creatività nell’infanzia. In: Cesa-Bianchi M, Cesa-Bianchi G, Porro A, editors. L’ultima creatività: Luci nella vecchiaia. Milano: Springer; 2011. pp. 61–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Medicine.

Blog post
Davis J. Serbian Orthodox Church Demands Museum Hands Over Ashes Of Nikola Tesla. IFLScience [Internet]. 2016 June 7 [cited 2018 October 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Guidance Needed if Halfway Houses Are To Be a Viable Alternative to Prison. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harris RH. Comparing the Effects of Traditional Face-to-face, Technology-Based, and Blended Instructional Strategies in a Post-Secondary Spanish Language Learning Environment [Doctoral dissertation]. Scottsdale, AZ: Northcentral University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ortved J. Shifting Focus To Men’s Shoes. New York Times. 2017 September 12;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 3,5,7,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Medicine
AbbreviationComp. Med.
ISSN (print)1532-0820
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Veterinary

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