How to format your references using the Comparative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Liljas A. 2008. Biochemistry. Getting close to termination. Science 322:863–865.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tonkin LA, Bass BL. 2003. Mutations in RNAi rescue aberrant chemotaxis of ADAR mutants. Science 302:1725.
A journal article with 3 authors
Anderson PW, Brinkman WF, Huse DA. 2005. Thermodynamics of an incommensurate quantum crystal. Science 310:1164–1166.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Cicchillo RM, Zhang H, Blodgett JAV, Whitteck JT, Li G, Nair SK, Donk WA van der, Metcalf WW. 2009. An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothricin biosynthesis. Nature 459:871–874.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tibergien M, Pomering R. 2011. Practice Made (More) Perfect. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Shishkov B, editor. 2016. Business Modeling and Software Design: 5th International Symposium, BMSD 2015, Milan, Italy, July 6–8, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Laasch H-U. 2013. Current Designs of Self-Expanding Stents, p 51–69. In: Kozarek R, Baron T, Song H-Y, editors. Self-Expandable Stents in the Gastrointestinal Tract. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Medicine.

Blog post
Taub B. 2016. Designer Brain Receptors May Stop Recovering Cocaine Addicts From Relapsing. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Land Management Systems: Extensive Cost Increases and Delays in BLM’s Major Data Base Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Riley JM. 2017. Was Sloth the Ultimate Slow Food? An Archaeological Examination of Padre Nuestro Cavern, Dominican Republic, Doctoral dissertation. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. 2016. A Maternal Giant, Spinning Tall Tales. New York Times :C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 7,8,4,6.

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Medicine
AbbreviationComp. Med.
ISSN (print)1532-0820
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Veterinary

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