How to format your references using the Comparative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brandenberger R. 2007. Astronomy. A texture in the sky? Science 318:1560–1561.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fischer J, Loss D. 2009. Physics. Dealing with decoherence. Science 324:1277–1278.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bylicka B, Chruściński D, Maniscalco S. 2014. Non-Markovianity and reservoir memory of quantum channels: a quantum information theory perspective. Sci Rep 4:5720.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tian P, Keusters D, Suzaki Y, Warren WS. 2003. Femtosecond phase-coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy. Science 300:1553–1555.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walker C, Fincham B. 2011. Work and the Mental Health Crisis in Britain. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Varelas P, editor. 2010. Seizures in Critical Care: A Guide to Diagnosis and Therapeutics. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Goto T, Ikehata A. 2015. Water Research by Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, p 55–76. In: Ozaki Y, Kawata S, editors. Far- and Deep-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy. Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Medicine.

Blog post
Evans K. 2016. 19 Life-Saving Facts That Everyone Should Know. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Information Technology: Management Needs to Address Reporting of IRS Investments’ Cost, Schedule, and Scope Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liang JR. 2017. A Risk Analysis of the Molybdenum-99 Supply Chain Using Bayesian Networks, Doctoral dissertation. Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. 2012. Experts Fear Life Insurers Are Courting Reserve Risk. New York Times :B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,5,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Medicine
AbbreviationComp. Med.
ISSN (print)1532-0820
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Veterinary

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