How to format your references using the Comparative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dahl-Jensen D. CLIMATE CHANGE: Enhanced: The Greenland Ice Sheet Reacts. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2000 July 21;289:;404–405.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wynia MK, Gostin L. Medicine. The bioterrorist threat and access to health care. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2002 May 31;296:;1613.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peters AJ, Chen SX, Komiyama T. Emergence of reproducible spatiotemporal activity during motor learning. Nature. 2014 June 12;510:;263–267.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Rein M, Favrod VD, Hou C, Khudiyev T, Stolyarov A, Cox J, Chung C-C, Chhav C, Ellis M, Joannopoulos J, et al. Diode fibres for fabric-based optical communications. Nature. 2018 August;560:;214–218.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shover L. Trading Options in Turbulent Markets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Bauer L, Körtvélyessy L, Štekauer P eds. Semantics of Complex Words. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Baruch IS, Galvan-Guerra R. Centralized Direct and Indirect Neural Control of Distributed Parameter Systems. In: Castillo O, Pedrycz W, Kacprzyk J, editors. Evolutionary Design of Intelligent Systems in Modeling, Simulation and Control. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. pp. 63–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Declining Winter Sea Ice Near Greenland Spells Cooler Climate For Europe. IFLScience [Internet]. 2015 June 30 [cited 2018 October 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highlights of a GAO Forum: Managing the Supplier Base in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen HT. The Songs of Lori Laitman: An Analysis of Sunflowers and Early Snow [Doctoral dissertation]. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Forsythe M. A Missing Tycoon’s Links to Dalian Wanda, China’s Troubled Conglomerate. New York Times. 2017 August 10;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 4,6–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Medicine
AbbreviationComp. Med.
ISSN (print)1532-0820
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Veterinary

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