How to format your references using the Comparative Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Comparative Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pochan DJ. Materials science. Approaching asymmetry and versatility in polymer assembly. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2012 August 3;337:;530–531.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nimmerjahn F, Ravetch JV. Divergent immunoglobulin g subclass activity through selective Fc receptor binding. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2005 December 2;310:;1510–1512.
A journal article with 3 authors
Suthram S, Sittler T, Ideker T. The Plasmodium protein network diverges from those of other eukaryotes. Nature. 2005 November 3;438:;108–112.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Staddon PL, Ramsey CB, Ostle N, Ineson P, Fitter AH. Rapid turnover of hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi determined by AMS microanalysis of 14C. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2003 May 16;300:;1138–1140.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burton E. Business and Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Spaccapietra S, Atzeni P, Fages F, Hacid M-S, Kifer M, Mylopoulos J, Pernici B, Shvaiko P, Trujillo J, Zaihrayeu I eds. Journal on Data Semantics VIII. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
McLeish T. Academic Freedom, Religion and the Natural Sciences. In: Garcia K, editor. Reexamining Academic Freedom in Religiously Affiliated Universities: Transcending Orthodoxies. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. pp. 63–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Comparative Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Bright Spots On Ceres Much Younger Than Previously Thought. IFLScience [Internet]. 2017 March 6 [cited 2018 October 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Small Business Administration: Mandated Planning for Loan Monitoring System Is Not Complete. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sorensen TR. The Use of Classroom Walk-Through Observations as a Strategy to Improve Teaching and Learning: A Student Centered Perspective [Doctoral dissertation]. St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Supreme Court Hears Case Involving Lethal Injection. New York Times. 2006 April 27;A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 3,4,7,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleComparative Medicine
AbbreviationComp. Med.
ISSN (print)1532-0820
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Veterinary

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