How to format your references using the Progress in Artificial Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Artificial Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P.: Conference management. Nature. 426, 911 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Vinnakota, R.K., Genov, D.A.: Terahertz optoelectronics with surface plasmon polariton diode. Sci. Rep. 4, 4899 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Turner, W.R., Oppenheimer, M., Wilcove, D.S.: A force to fight global warming. Nature. 462, 278–279 (2009)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Beltrán, M.T., Cesaroni, R., Codella, C., Testi, L., Furuya, R.S., Olmi, L.: Infall of gas as the formation mechanism of stars up to 20 times more massive than the Sun. Nature. 443, 427–429 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bahadori, A.: Waste Management in the Chemical and Petroleum Industries. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK (2013)
An edited book
Rane, A., Cadeddu, J.A., Desai, M.M., Gill, I.S. eds: Scar-Less Surgery: NOTES, Transumbilical, and Others. Springer, London (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
GIZ GmbH: Success Factor – Strategy. In: GmbH, G. (ed.) Cooperation Management for Practitioners: Managing Social Change with Capacity WORKS. pp. 42–51. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Artificial Intelligence.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Newly Discovered Class Of Antibodies Could Lead To Universal Dengue Vaccine


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airport Improvement Program: Planned Funding Under Letters of Intent. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1998)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson, P.: An exploratory study of work-related imagined interactions with real-life coworkers, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B.: Company Town, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Artificial Intelligence
AbbreviationProg. Artif. Intell.
ISSN (print)2192-6352
ISSN (online)2192-6360
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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