How to format your references using the Progress in Artificial Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Artificial Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P.: Part-time growth. Nature. 420, 3 (2002)
A journal article with 2 authors
Buckley, S.A., Evershed, R.P.: Organic chemistry of embalming agents in Pharaonic and Graeco-Roman mummies. Nature. 413, 837–841 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Hare, T.A., Camerer, C.F., Rangel, A.: Self-control in decision-making involves modulation of the vmPFC valuation system. Science. 324, 646–648 (2009)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wegner, K.M., Kalbe, M., Kurtz, J., Reusch, T.B.H., Milinski, M.: Parasite selection for immunogenetic optimality. Science. 301, 1343 (2003)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Héno, R., Chandelier, L.: 3D Modeling of Buildings. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2014)
An edited book
Herman, J.M., Pawlik, T.M., Thomas, C.R., Jr. eds: Biliary Tract and Gallbladder Cancer: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Tejchman, J., Bobiński, J.: Discontinuous Approach to Concrete. In: Bobiński, J. (ed.) Continuous and Discontinuous Modelling of Fracture in Concrete Using FEM. pp. 95–107. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Artificial Intelligence.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Cassini Captures Spectacular View Of Sunlight Glinting Off Of Titan’s Seas


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: FAA Encountering Problems in Acquiring Major Automated Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1990)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aldridge, K.N.: The Impact of Improved Teachers’ Classroom Management and Cultural Responsiveness on Student Behavior, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K.: An Homage to France, (2009)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Artificial Intelligence
AbbreviationProg. Artif. Intell.
ISSN (print)2192-6352
ISSN (online)2192-6360
ScopeArtificial Intelligence

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