How to format your references using the Programme Grants for Applied Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Programme Grants for Applied Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brook E. Climate change. The ice age carbon puzzle. Science 2012;336:682–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cohen JD, Tong F. Neuroscience. The face of controversy. Science 2001;293:2405–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
MacAlister CA, Ohashi-Ito K, Bergmann DC. Transcription factor control of asymmetric cell divisions that establish the stomatal lineage. Nature 2007;445:537–40.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Israelian G, Santos NC, Mayor M, Rebolo R. Evidence for planet engulfment by the star HD82943. Nature 2001;411:163–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Acharya VV, Cooley TF, Richardson M, Walter I. Regulating Wall Street. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Villadsen J. Bioreaction Engineering Principles. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Serra HA de A, Paulino N. Band-Pass Filter Topologies. In: Paulino N, editor. Design of Switched-Capacitor Filter Circuits using Low Gain Amplifiers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 23–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Programme Grants for Applied Research.

Blog post
Carpineti A. We Now Know Why Pluto’s Moon Charon Has A Large Red Spot. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016. URL: (Accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security: Telephone Access Enhanced at Field Offices Under Demonstration Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moro JM. School Improvement Grants at Work: A Study of Urban, Public New England Schools. Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University; 2017; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. The Kennedy Factor On the Roberts Court. New York Times 2006:WK2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleProgramme Grants for Applied Research
ISSN (print)2050-4322
ISSN (online)2050-4330

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