How to format your references using the Programme Grants for Applied Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Programme Grants for Applied Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Offerman SE. Materials science. Microstructures in 4D. Science 2004;305:190–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Domokos G, Scheuring I. Random perturbations and lattice effects in chaotic population dynamics. Science 2002;297:2163; discussion 2163.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Han Y, Bai T, Liu W. Controlled heterogeneous stem cell differentiation on a shape memory hydrogel surface. Sci Rep 2014;4:5815.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Avvakumov GV, Walker JR, Xue S, Li Y, Duan S, Bronner C, et al. Structural basis for recognition of hemi-methylated DNA by the SRA domain of human UHRF1. Nature 2008;455:822–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Mazze RS, Strock ES, Simonson GD, Bergenstal RM. Staged Diabetes Management. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1
McGee RW, editor. Corporate Governance in Transition Economies. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Jankowski PP, O’Brien RA, Cornwall GB, Taylor WR. Intraoperative Neurophysiology Monitoring. In: Phillips F, Lieberman I, Polly D, editors. Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery: Surgical Techniques and Disease Management. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 43–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Programme Grants for Applied Research.

Blog post
1
Hale T. Dramatic Photographs Of Hawaii’s Rising Lava Lake Levels. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Payments for Independent Research and Development and Bid and Proposal Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Winhusen ER. Precambrian Seawater Temperature Analysis Using Oxygen Isotopes from Hamersley Carbonates, Western Australia. Doctoral dissertation, Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati; 2001; 2001.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Wilson M. Trump Returns Home After 3 Months Away To Stay for 4 Hours. New York Times 2017:A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleProgramme Grants for Applied Research
ISSN (print)2050-4322
ISSN (online)2050-4330
Scope

Other styles