# How to format your references using the International Comparative Jurisprudence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Comparative Jurisprudence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blow, N. (2008). Nanotechnology: could it be a small world after all? Nature, 452(7189), 901–904.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feau, S., & Schoenberger, S. P. (2009). Immunology. Ex uno plura. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5913), 466–467.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yin, Q., Jacobsen, S. B., & Yamashita, K. (2002). Diverse supernova sources of pre-solar material inferred from molybdenum isotopes in meteorites. Nature, 415(6874), 881–883.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rehling, P., Model, K., Brandner, K., Kovermann, P., Sickmann, A., Meyer, H. E., Kühlbrandt, W., Wagner, R., Truscott, K. N., & Pfanner, N. (2003). Protein insertion into the mitochondrial inner membrane by a twin-pore translocase. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5613), 1747–1751.

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thiessen, H. (1996). Measuring the Real World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,.
An edited book
Campbell, J., Baikaloff, N., & Power, C. (Eds.). (2006). Towards a Global Community: Educating for Tomorrow’s World (Vol. 7). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Hu, J., Wang, Z., & Gao, H. (2015). $$H_\infty$$ H ∞ Sliding Mode Observer Design for Nonlinear Time Delay Systems. In Z. Wang & H. Gao (Eds.), Nonlinear Stochastic Systems with Network-Induced Phenomena: Recursive Filtering and Sliding-Mode Design (pp. 119–142). Springer International Publishing.

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Comparative Jurisprudence.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, June 21). Fentanyl: Widely Used, Deadly When Abused. IFLScience; IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/fentanyl-widely-used-deadly-when-abused/

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Education Taking Needed Actions But Work Remains (T-AIMD-99-180). U.S. Government Printing Office.

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Narita, D. (2008). Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) and climate change mitigation: An analysis of economic optimality and policy making [Doctoral dissertation]. Columbia University.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Maheshwari, S., & Herrman, J. (2016, October 30). Publishers Are Rethinking Those ‘Around the Web’ Ads. New York Times, B1.

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blow, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Blow, 2008; Feau & Schoenberger, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

• Two authors: (Feau & Schoenberger, 2009)
• Three authors: (Yin et al., 2002)
• 6 or more authors: (Rehling et al., 2003)