How to format your references using the Processing and Application of Ceramics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Processing and Application of Ceramics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. A. Knoblich, “Cell biology. Sara splits the signal,” Science 314, [5802] (2006) 1094.
A journal article with 2 authors
I. Velicogna and J. Wahr, “Measurements of time-variable gravity show mass loss in Antarctica,” Science 311, [5768] (2006) 1754.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. M. Kaiser, H. S. Malik and M. Emerman, “Restriction of an extinct retrovirus by the human TRIM5alpha antiviral protein,” Science 316, [5832] (2007) 1756.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
J. Borondo, F. Borondo, C. Rodriguez-Sickert and C. A. Hidalgo, “To each according to its degree: the meritocracy and topocracy of embedded markets,” Sci. Rep. 4, (2014) 3784.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Richards, Investing Psychology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, (2014).
An edited book
K. Ellmer, A. Klein and B. Rech, Eds., Transparent Conductive Zinc Oxide: Basics and Applications in Thin Film Solar Cells, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, (2008).
A chapter in an edited book
R. Madonna, “Tissue Specific Progenitors/Stem Cells for Cardiac Regeneration,” in Stem Cells and Cardiac Regeneration, R. Madonna, Ed., Springer International Publishing, Cham, (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Processing and Application of Ceramics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “25 Strangest Things Found on an X-Ray,” IFLScience, IFLScience, (2014) (30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Telecommunications: Enhanced Data Collection and Analysis Could Inform FCC’s Efforts to Complete the Digital Transition of Low-Power Television Stations and Reallocate Spectrum,” GAO-11-790, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, (2011).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. J. Wheeler, “Efficient construction of accurate multiple alignments and large-scale phylogenies,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, (2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Brantley, “Terrors of an Unfixed Reality,” in New York Times, (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProcessing and Application of Ceramics
ISSN (print)1820-6131
ISSN (online)2406-1034

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