How to format your references using the Processing and Application of Ceramics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Processing and Application of Ceramics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. A. Mindell, “Cell biology. A SWELL channel indeed,” Science 344, [6184] (2014) 585.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Politi and J. C. Weaver, “Biomineralization. Built for tough conditions,” Science 347, [6223] (2015) 712.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. G. Copeland, N. A. Jenkins and S. J. O’Brien, “Genomics. Mmu 16--comparative genomic highlights,” Science 296, [5573] (2002) 1617.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
F. Oury, Y. Murakami, J.-S. Renaud, M. Pasqualetti, P. Charnay, S.-Y. Ren and F. M. Rijli, “Hoxa2- and rhombomere-dependent development of the mouse facial somatosensory map,” Science 313, [5792] (2006) 1408.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V. S. Cheng and J. C. Tong, Building Sustainability in East Asia, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, (2017).
An edited book
P. Abrahamsson, N. Baddoo, T. Margaria and R. Messnarz, Eds., Software Process Improvement: 14th European Conference, EuroSPI 2007, Potsdam, Germany, September 26-28, 2007. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, (2007).
A chapter in an edited book
A. Klisnick, A. Le Marec, L. Meng, O. Larroche, O. Guilbaud, M. Kozlova, J. Nejdl and A. Calisti, “Spectral Properties of Collisional Xuv Lasers for the Amplification of Femtosecond Pulses,” in X-Ray Lasers 2014: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, J. Rocca, C. Menoni, and M. Marconi, Eds., Springer International Publishing, Cham, (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Processing and Application of Ceramics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Do Whales Commit Suicide?,” IFLScience, IFLScience, (2015) (30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Commercial Aviation: Programs and Options for the Federal Approach to Providing and Improving Air Service to Small Communities,” GAO-06-398T, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, (2006).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
W. A. Lucas, “Dynamics of Food Consumption in a Q’eqchi’ Maya Community,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. C. McKINLEY Jr, “Prosecutor Declined To Pursue Allegations,” in New York Times, (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProcessing and Application of Ceramics
ISSN (print)1820-6131
ISSN (online)2406-1034

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