How to format your references using the Processing and Application of Ceramics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Processing and Application of Ceramics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Schaffer, “The laird of physics,” Nature 471, [7338] (2011) 289.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. G. Cory and T. F. Havel, “Physics. Ion entanglement in quantum information processing,” Science 304, [5676] (2004) 1456.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Häkkinen, P. B. Rhines and D. L. Worthen, “Atmospheric blocking and Atlantic multidecadal ocean variability,” Science 334, [6056] (2011) 655.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
A. M. Proverbio, M. Calbi, M. Manfredi and A. Zani, “Audio-visuomotor processing in the musician’s brain: an ERP study on professional violinists and clarinetists,” Sci. Rep. 4, (2014) 5866.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V. Cicek and B. Al-Numan, Corrosion Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, (2011).
An edited book
K. G. Usunoff, Functional Neuroanatomy of Pain, A. Popratiloff, O. Schmitt, and A. Wree, Eds., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, (2006).
A chapter in an edited book
F. Ricciardi, “ICTs in an Ageing Society: An Overview of Emerging Research Streams,” in Management of the Interconnected World: ItAIS: The Italian Association for Information Systems, A. D’Atri, M. De Marco, A. M. Braccini, and F. Cabiddu, Eds., Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, (2010).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Processing and Application of Ceramics.

Blog post
S. Luntz, “Cancer Vaccine Delivered Via Coated Bacteria,” IFLScience, IFLScience, (2015) (30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Public Transportation: Use of Contractors is Generally Enhancing Transit Project Oversight, and FTA is Taking Actions to Address Some Stakeholder Concerns,” GAO-10-909, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, (2010).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. Packman, “The Effects of Eccentricity on Rectangular Hollow Structural Section Stress in Moment Connections Loaded Out-of-Plane,” Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Schwirtz and B. Mueller, “Inmate at Rikers Is Missing After Eluding Several Guards,” in New York Times, (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProcessing and Application of Ceramics
ISSN (print)1820-6131
ISSN (online)2406-1034

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