How to format your references using the Processing and Application of Ceramics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Processing and Application of Ceramics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
F. Sultan, “Analysis of mammalian brain architecture,” Nature 415, [6868] (2002) 133.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Zegerman and J. F. X. Diffley, “Phosphorylation of Sld2 and Sld3 by cyclin-dependent kinases promotes DNA replication in budding yeast,” Nature 445, [7125] (2007) 281.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. P. Eggleton, D. S. P. Dearborn and J. C. Lattanzio, “Deep mixing of 3He: reconciling Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis,” Science 314, [5805] (2006) 1580.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
D. Li, R. Zhao, W. Lilyestrom, D. Gai, R. Zhang, J. A. DeCaprio, E. Fanning, A. Jochimiak, G. Szakonyi, et al., “Structure of the replicative helicase of the oncoprotein SV40 large tumour antigen,” Nature 423, [6939] (2003) 512.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
É. Pardoux, Markov Processes and Applications: Algorithms, Networks, Genome and Finance, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, (2008).
An edited book
W. L. Myers, Multivariate Methods of Representing Relations in R for Prioritization Purposes: Selective Scaling, Comparative Clustering, Collective Criteria and Sequenced Sets, G. P. Patil, Ed., Springer, New York, NY, (2012).
A chapter in an edited book
J. Ameratunga, N. Sivakugan and B. M. Das, “Cone Penetrometer Test,” in Correlations of Soil and Rock Properties in Geotechnical Engineering, N. Sivakugan and B. M. Das, Eds., Springer India, New Delhi, (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Processing and Application of Ceramics.

Blog post
B. Taub, “World’s Rarest Great Ape Threatened By Nigerian Highway,” IFLScience, IFLScience, (2016) (30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “District of Columbia: D.C. Public Schools Inappropriately Used Gas Utility Contract for Renovations,” GAO-01-963, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, (2001).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. E. Hey, “Olivier Messiaen’s ‘Quartet for the End of Time’: A look at ‘The Abyss of the Birds’ and socio-political issues, religion and performance practice in reference to the bible and the holocaust,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, (2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, “Smile When You Say It: Same Old Jets,” in New York Times, (2011).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProcessing and Application of Ceramics
ISSN (print)1820-6131
ISSN (online)2406-1034

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