How to format your references using the Processing and Application of Ceramics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Processing and Application of Ceramics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Watzman, “German researchers set to receive Israeli stem-cell shipment,” Nature 421, [6920] (2003) 199.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. C. Singh and K. C. Macdonald, “Mantle skewness and ridge segmentation,” Nature 458, [7241] (2009) E11.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. W. Taylor, A. S. Flecker and R. O. Hall Jr, “Loss of a harvested fish species disrupts carbon flow in a diverse tropical river,” Science 313, [5788] (2006) 833.
A journal article with 10 or more authors
H. Shimura, M. G. Schlossmacher, N. Hattori, M. P. Frosch, A. Trockenbacher, R. Schneider, Y. Mizuno, K. S. Kosik and D. J. Selkoe, “Ubiquitination of a new form of alpha-synuclein by parkin from human brain: implications for Parkinson’s disease,” Science 293, [5528] (2001) 263.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Stamp, Information Security, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, (2011).
An edited book
S. Linge, Programming for Computations - Python: A Gentle Introduction to Numerical Simulations with Python, H. P. Langtangen, Ed., Springer International Publishing, Cham, (2016).
A chapter in an edited book
H. Papadopoulos and H. Haralambous, “Neural Networks Regression Inductive Conformal Predictor and Its Application to Total Electron Content Prediction,” in Artificial Neural Networks – ICANN 2010: 20th International Conference, Thessaloniki, Greece, September 15-18, 2010, Proceedings, Part I, K. Diamantaras, W. Duch, and L. S. Iliadis, Eds., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, (2010).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Processing and Application of Ceramics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Five Years Of The Tories Creates Uncertainty For British Science,” IFLScience, IFLScience, (2015) (30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “NATO-Warsaw Pact: U.S. and Soviet Perspectives of the Conventional Force Balance,” NSIAD-89-23A, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, (1988).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N. J. Ionedes, “An exploration of social interest therapy as a treatment for depression in the elderly,” Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, (2008).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Barron, “Age Requirement At Chelsea Art Gallery: Over 60 Only,” in New York Times, (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProcessing and Application of Ceramics
ISSN (print)1820-6131
ISSN (online)2406-1034

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