How to format your references using the Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jardine, M. (2010). Astronomy. Sunscreen for the young Earth. Science 327, 1206–1207.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gombosi, T. I., and Hansen, K. C. (2005). Saturn’s variable magnetosphere. Science 307, 1224–1226.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barbot, S., Lapusta, N., and Avouac, J.-P. (2012). Under the hood of the earthquake machine: toward predictive modeling of the seismic cycle. Science 336, 707–710.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tang, C., Toomajian, C., Sherman-Broyles, S., Plagnol, V., Guo, Y.-L., Hu, T. T., et al. (2007). The evolution of selfing in Arabidopsis thaliana. Science 317, 1070–1072.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
de Gyurky, S. M. (2006). The Cognitive Dynamics of Computer Science. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rosales, J. C. (2009). Numerical Semigroups. First. , ed. P. A. García-Sánchez New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Nguyen, V.-T., Vu, H., and Tran, T.-H. (2015). “An Efficient Combination of RGB and Depth for Background Subtraction,” in Some Current Advanced Researches on Information and Computer Science in Vietnam: Post-proceedings of The First NAFOSTED Conference on Information and Computer Science Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing., eds. Q. A. Dang, X. H. Nguyen, H. B. Le, V. H. Nguyen, and V. N. Q. Bao (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 49–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Hubble’s Ultraviolet Telescope Has Revealed More About The Stars Than We Could Ever See. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001). FTS2001: Transition Challenges Jeopardize Program Goals. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clayton-Clark, C. (2012). Academic performance strategies implemented by successful California superintendents in low-performing school districts.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. (2017). Alexei Ratmansky Plans New ‘Harlequinade.’ New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jardine, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Gombosi and Hansen, 2005; Jardine, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gombosi and Hansen, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Tang et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Ecology and Evolution
AbbreviationFront. Ecol. Evol.
ISSN (online)2296-701X

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