How to format your references using the Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zellers, D. (2005). Scientists and societies. Building a regional postdoc community. Nature 433, 178.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gick, B., and Derrick, D. (2009). Aero-tactile integration in speech perception. Nature 462, 502–504.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghaffari, H. O., Nasseri, M. H. B., and Young, R. P. (2014). Faulting of rocks in a three-dimensional stress field by micro-anticracks. Sci. Rep. 4, 5011.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen, H., Smith, G. J. D., Zhang, S. Y., Qin, K., Wang, J., Li, K. S., et al. (2005). Avian flu: H5N1 virus outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Nature 436, 191–192.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fliszár, S. (2008). Atomic Charges, Bond Properties, and Molecular Energies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wang, Z. M. ed. (2013). FIB Nanostructures. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Cardoso, J. M. P., and Diniz, P. C. (2009). “Code Transformations,” in Compilation Techniques for Reconfigurable Architectures, ed. P. C. Diniz (Boston, MA: Springer US), 67–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015). Researchers Uncover A Fourth Ancestral “Tribe” To Modern Europeans. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Land Management Systems: Major Software Development Does Not Meet BLM’s Business Needs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garyan, D. (2017). Converging origins: Never forget what happened in the future.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S. (2000). Nothing Lasts Forever. New York Times, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zellers, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Zellers, 2005; Gick and Derrick, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gick and Derrick, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Ecology and Evolution
AbbreviationFront. Ecol. Evol.
ISSN (online)2296-701X

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