How to format your references using the Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ainsworth, C. (2012). Immunology: A many layered thing. Nature 492, S52-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kofman, A. G., and Kurizki, G. (2000). Acceleration of quantum decay processes by frequent observations. Nature 405, 546–550.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koga, K., Tanaka, H., and Zeng, X. C. (2000). First-order transition in confined water between high-density liquid and low-density amorphous phases. Nature 408, 564–567.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cai, Y., Hossain, M. J., Hériché, J.-K., Politi, A. Z., Walther, N., Koch, B., et al. (2018). Experimental and computational framework for a dynamic protein atlas of human cell division. Nature 561, 411–415.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Giannini, F., and Leuzzi, G. (2005). Nonlinear Microwave Circuit Design. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Strate, J. (2015). Expert Performance Indexing in SQL Server. Second Edition. , ed. G. Fritchey Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Benson, D. J., Iyengar, S., and Krause, H. (2012). “Friday,” in Representations of Finite Groups: Local Cohomology and Support, eds. S. Iyengar and H. Krause (Basel: Springer), 79–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017). Vultures Caught Using Makeup for the First Time. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). Ocean Research Fleet: NOAA Needs to Plan for Long-Term Fleet Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Raynor, S. L. (2017). A Critical Quantitative Examination of the Relationship between Constructs of Engagement and Latino College Completion.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S. (2004). Annie, Get Your Calculator. New York Times, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ainsworth, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Kofman and Kurizki, 2000; Ainsworth, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kofman and Kurizki, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Cai et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Ecology and Evolution
AbbreviationFront. Ecol. Evol.
ISSN (online)2296-701X

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