How to format your references using the Proceedings of the Zoological Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proceedings of the Zoological Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zoller, P. 2000. Tricks with a single photon. Nature 404: 340–341.
A journal article with 2 authors
Höfling, Sven, and Alexey Kavokin. 2014. Solid-state physics: A historic experiment redesigned. Nature 514: 313–314.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pluth, Michael D., Robert G. Bergman, and Kenneth N. Raymond. 2007. Acid catalysis in basic solution: a supramolecular host promotes orthoformate hydrolysis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 316: 85–88.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Korou, Laskarina-Maria, George Agrogiannis, Christos Koros, Efthimia Kitraki, Ioannis S. Vlachos, Irene Tzanetakou, Theodore Karatzas, Vasilios Pergialiotis, Dimitrios Dimitroulis, and Despina N. Perrea. 2014. Impact of N-acetylcysteine and sesame oil on lipid metabolism and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis homeostasis in middle-aged hypercholesterolemic mice. Scientific reports 4: 6806.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vallin, Robert W. 2013. The Elements of Cantor Sets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Stanton, Patrick K., Clive Bramham, and Helen E. Scharfman, ed. 2005. Synaptic Plasticity and Transsynaptic Signaling. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Onorati, Teresa, Ignacio Aedo, Marco Romano, and Paloma Díaz. 2014. EmergenSYS: Mobile Technologies as Support for Emergency Management. In Smart Organizations and Smart Artifacts: Fostering Interaction Between People, Technologies and Processes, ed. Leonardo Caporarello, Beniamino Di Martino, and Marcello Martinez, 37–45. Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proceedings of the Zoological Society.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2017. Researchers Develop Cheap Sunlight Powered Water-Purifier. IFLScience. IFLScience. February 3.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Drug Education: Limited Progress in Program Evaluation. T-PEMD-93-2. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dubin-Thaler, Benjamin J. 2008. Evidence for hierarchical control of conserved, discrete motility types in crawling motility. Doctoral dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, A. L., Eli Rosenberg, and Benjamin Mueller. 2016. Police Sergeant Fatally Shot in the Bronx; Another Is Injured. New York Times, November 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zoller 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Zoller 2000; Höfling and Kavokin 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Höfling and Kavokin 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Korou et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleProceedings of the Zoological Society
AbbreviationProc. Zool. Soc.
ISSN (print)0373-5893
ISSN (online)0974-6919

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