How to format your references using the Proceedings of the Zoological Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proceedings of the Zoological Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kysar, Douglas. 2011. Supreme Court ruling is good, bad and ugly. Nature 474: 421.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kuo, S. C., and J. L. McGrath. 2000. Steps and fluctuations of Listeria monocytogenes during actin-based motility. Nature 407: 1026–1029.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grigoryan, Gevorg, Aaron W. Reinke, and Amy E. Keating. 2009. Design of protein-interaction specificity gives selective bZIP-binding peptides. Nature 458: 859–864.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mainprice, David, Andréa Tommasi, Hélène Couvy, Patrick Cordier, and Daniel J. Frost. 2005. Pressure sensitivity of olivine slip systems and seismic anisotropy of Earth’s upper mantle. Nature 433: 731–733.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Riegel, Max, Dirk Kroeselberg, Aik Chindapol, and Domagoj Premec. 2009. Deploying Mobile WiMAX. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sorell, Matthew, ed. 2009. Forensics in Telecommunications, Information and Multimedia: Second International Conference, e-Forensics 2009, Adelaide, Australia, January 19-21, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 8. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gourcy, L. L., M. Groening, and P. K. Aggarwal. 2005. Stable Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopes in Precipitation. In Isotopes in the Water Cycle: Past, Present and Future of a Developing Science, ed. Pradeep K. Aggarwal, Joel R. Gat, and Klaus F. O. Froehlich, 39–51. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proceedings of the Zoological Society.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. Evolutionary Evidence Shows It’s Time to Revise How We Classify Life on Earth. IFLScience. IFLScience. November 12.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Status of Medicare Providers Unknown. AIMD-99-243. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kapatsinski, Vsevolod. 2009. The architecture of grammar in artificial grammar learning: Formal biases in the acquisition of morphophonology and the nature of the learning task. Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary. 2013. His Mission: Beat Swords Into Baubles. New York Times, July 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kysar 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Kuo and McGrath 2000; Kysar 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kuo and McGrath 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Mainprice et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleProceedings of the Zoological Society
AbbreviationProc. Zool. Soc.
ISSN (print)0373-5893
ISSN (online)0974-6919

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