How to format your references using the Proceedings of the Zoological Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proceedings of the Zoological Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaiser, J. 2000. ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT: Ecologists Hope to Avoid the Mistakes of Previous Assessment. Science (New York, N.Y.) 289: 1677.
A journal article with 2 authors
Robinson, J. Paul, and Mario Roederer. 2015. HISTORY OF SCIENCE. Flow cytometry strikes gold. Science (New York, N.Y.) 350: 739–740.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rees, Martin, Ben Koppelman, and Neil Davison. 2010. Scientific steps to nuclear disarmament. Nature 465: 290–291.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Liu, Shu-Lin, Jicun Li, Zhi-Ling Zhang, Zhi-Gang Wang, Zhi-Quan Tian, Guo-Ping Wang, and Dai-Wen Pang. 2013. Fast and high-accuracy localization for three-dimensional single-particle tracking. Scientific reports 3: 2462.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh, S. A., and M. Azizur Rahman. 2010. An Introduction to Wavelet Modulated Inverters. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lenarčič, Jadran, and Oussama Khatib, ed. 2014. Advances in Robot Kinematics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Granov, Anatoliy, Leonid Tiutin, and Thomas Schwarz. 2013. Breast Cancer. In Positron Emission Tomography, ed. Anatoliy Granov, Leonid Tiutin, and Thomas Schwarz, 59–76. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proceedings of the Zoological Society.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2015. Fatal Whale Attack Reveals The ‘Dark Side’ Of Dolphins. IFLScience. IFLScience. October 30.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Aviation Safety: Changes Needed in FAA’s Service Difficulty Reporting Program. RCED-91-24. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hardison, Ashley. 2017. Achieving Literacy Excellence through Identifying and Utilizing High Yield Strategies. Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, Ben. 2016. Behind Drug Exemption, Questions About a Doctor. New York Times, September 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kaiser 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kaiser 2000; Robinson and Roederer 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Robinson and Roederer 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleProceedings of the Zoological Society
AbbreviationProc. Zool. Soc.
ISSN (print)0373-5893
ISSN (online)0974-6919

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