How to format your references using the International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Burnett, Laser-matter interactions. It takes two electrons to tango, Nature. 405 (2000) 631, 633.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.S. Gandhi, D.C. Rees, Biochemistry. Opening the molecular floodgates, Science. 321 (2008) 1166–1167.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.S. Yoo, C. Bais, I. Greenwald, Crosstalk between the EGFR and LIN-12/Notch pathways in C. elegans vulval development, Science. 303 (2004) 663–666.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Wang, Z. Tian, J. Jing, H. Fan, Quantum metrology and estimation of Unruh effect, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S.A. Morris, Food and Package Engineering, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
C. de Virgilio, P.N. Frank, A. Grigorian, eds., Surgery: A Case Based Clinical Review, Springer, New York, NY, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Klein, BPS-MAC: Backoff Preamble Based MAC Protocol with Sequential Contention Resolution, in: C. Sacchi, B. Bellalta, A. Vinel, C. Schlegel, F. Granelli, Y. Zhang (Eds.), Multiple Access Communications: 4th International Workshop, MACOM 2011, Trento, Italy, September 12-13, 2011. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011: pp. 39–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection.

Blog post
T. Hale, The Dark Truth About Adélie Penguins Was Kept Secret For More Than A Hundred Years, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Technology Transfer: Copyright Law Constrains Commercialization of Some Federal Software, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L.J. Wilbur, Perceptions of Missouri Public School Early Childhood Teachers and Administrators in Regard to Technology and Current Practices, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Lee, Greasing a Squeaky Wheel, New York Times. (2014) D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection
ISSN (print)1874-5482

Other styles