How to format your references using the International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.F. Keeling, Atmospheric science. Recording Earth’s vital signs, Science. 319 (2008) 1771–1772.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Schulze-Lefert, S. Bieri, Plant sciences. Recognition at a distance, Science. 308 (2005) 506–508.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Arakawa, J. Hauschild, J.-M. Buerstedde, Requirement of the activation-induced deaminase (AID) gene for immunoglobulin gene conversion, Science. 295 (2002) 1301–1306.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Wang, L. Wang, X. Li, C. Mao, Virus activated artificial ECM induces the osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells without osteogenic supplements, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1242.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P.A. Rees, An Introduction to Zoo Biology and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Q. Zheng, ed., Introduction to E-commerce, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
I. Forieri, R. Hell, Micronutrient Use Efficiency – Cell Biology of Iron and Its Metabolic Interactions in Plants, in: M.J. Hawkesford, S. Kopriva, L.J. De Kok (Eds.), Nutrient Use Efficiency in Plants: Concepts and Approaches, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 133–152.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Can Genetics Find A ‘Cure’ For Autism?, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Declining Balance Raises Concerns over Ability to Meet Future Demands, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.M. Rodriguez, Experimental Evaluation of Cooling Effectiveness and Water Conservation in a Poultry House Using Flow Blurring Atomizers, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Eligon, S. Cacciola, Player’s Protest Revives a Spirit of Activism From the Days of Ali, New York Times. (2016) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection
ISSN (print)1874-5482

Other styles