How to format your references using the Proceedings of the IEEE citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proceedings of the IEEE. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. F. Shlesinger, “Statistical mechanics. Exploring phase space,” Nature, vol. 405, no. 6783, pp. 135, 137, May 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Sablowski and N. P. Harberd, “Plant sciences. Plant genes on steroids,” Science, vol. 307, no. 5715, pp. 1569–1570, Mar. 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. Wigginton, J. Yeston, and D. Malakoff, “Working with waste. More treasure than trash. Introduction,” Science, vol. 337, no. 6095, pp. 662–663, Aug. 2012.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Xin et al., “TPP1 is a homologue of ciliate TEBP-beta and interacts with POT1 to recruit telomerase,” Nature, vol. 445, no. 7127, pp. 559–562, Feb. 2007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K. J. Davey, Building Winning Algorithmic Trading Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.
An edited book
C. Trombetta, G. Liguori, and M. Bertolotto, Eds., Management of Gender Dysphoria: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Milano: Springer, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Victor, C. Cornelis, and M. de Cock, “Social Recommender Systems,” in Trust Networks for Recommender Systems, C. Cornelis and M. de Cock, Eds. Paris: Atlantis Press, 2011, pp. 91–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proceedings of the IEEE.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Turtle Extinction Event Bodes Ill For Our Waterways,” IFLScience, Mar. 25, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Avoiding Major Disruptions Will Require Strong Leadership and Effective Partnerships,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-AIMD-98-267, Aug. 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. E. Roberts, “Process evaluation of the Instant Word Notebook,” Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Hodgman, “Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman,” New York Times, p. MM26, Jul. 28, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProceedings of the IEEE
AbbreviationProc. IEEE Inst. Electr. Electron. Eng.
ISSN (print)0018-9219
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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