How to format your references using the Proceedings - Mathematical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proceedings - Mathematical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D.: Referendum stalls Japanese nuclear power strategy. Nature. 411, 729 (2001)
A journal article with 2 authors
Bhaskaran, H., Russell, R.: Kinetic redistribution of native and misfolded RNAs by a DEAD-box chaperone. Nature. 449, 1014–1018 (2007)
A journal article with 3 authors
Sawamura, H., Shima, K., Tanji, J.: Numerical representation for action in the parietal cortex of the monkey. Nature. 415, 918–922 (2002)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Choi, D., Moneck, M., Liu, X., Oh, S.J., Kagan, C.R., Coffey, K.R., Barmak, K.: Crystallographic anisotropy of the resistivity size effect in single crystal tungsten nanowires. Sci. Rep. 3, 2591 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Arendt, J.S., Lorenzo, D.K.: Evaluating Process Safety in the Chemical Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2000)
An edited book
Martel, A.: Designing Value-Creating Supply Chain Networks. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Zwettler, G., Track, P., Waschaurek, F., Woschitz, R., Hagmann, E., Hinterholzer, S.: Towards a Normalized Reference System in Building Construction Planning for Automated Quantitative Assessment and Optimization of Energy and Cost Efficiency. In: Liñán Reyes, M., Flores Arias, J.M., González de la Rosa, J.J., Langer, J., Bellido Outeiriño, F.J., and Moreno-Munñoz, A. (eds.) IT Revolutions: Third International ICST Conference, Córdoba, Spain, March 23-25, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. pp. 39–57. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proceedings - Mathematical Sciences.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Did Humans Coexist with Saber Cats?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Proposed Revision to Armed Services Procurement Regulation for Cost Principles on Independent Research and Development Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1976)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bornheimer, M.E.: The influence of leadership development programs on the community college leadership shortage: A case study, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Blanchard, K.: Let the Pill Go Free, (2010)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProceedings - Mathematical Sciences
ISSN (print)0253-4142
ISSN (online)0973-7685

Other styles