How to format your references using the Proceedings - Mathematical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proceedings - Mathematical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fitzpatrick, Y.: Cover stories: Animal attraction. Science. 339, 1001 (2013)
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahlund, M., Andersson, M.: Female ducks can double their reproduction. Nature. 414, 600–601 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Tamisiea, M.E., Mitrovica, J.X., Davis, J.L.: GRACE gravity data constrain ancient ice geometries and continental dynamics over Laurentia. Science. 316, 881–883 (2007)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Burgert, R., Schnöckel, H., Grubisic, A., Li, X., Stokes, S.T., Bowen, K.H., Ganteför, G.F., Kiran, B., Jena, P.: Spin conservation accounts for aluminum cluster anion reactivity pattern with O2. Science. 319, 438–442 (2008)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taylor, B.: Effective Environmental, Health, and Safety Management Using the Team Approach. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2005)
An edited book
Scheffers, A.M.: The Coastlines of the World with Google Earth: Understanding our Environment. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Lozovanu, D., Pickl, S.: Errata to: Optimization of Stochastic Discrete Systems and Control on Complex Networks. In: Pickl, S. (ed.) Optimization of Stochastic Discrete Systems and Control on Complex Networks: Computational Networks. pp. E1–E4. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proceedings - Mathematical Sciences.

Blog post
Hale, T.: Naked Penguin Gets A New Wetsuit For Winter,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Distance Education: Challenges for Minority Serving Institutions and Implications for Federal Education Policy. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2003)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brady, D.C.: The transforming Rho family GTPase, Wrch -1, regulates epithelial cell morphogenesis through modulating cell junctions and actin cytoskeletal dynamics, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J.B.: Clinton Plan for Taxes Is Expansive but Complex, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProceedings - Mathematical Sciences
ISSN (print)0253-4142
ISSN (online)0973-7685

Other styles