How to format your references using the Proceedings - Mathematical Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proceedings - Mathematical Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spitzer, N.C.: DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE. Neurotransmitter-tailored dendritic trees. Science. 350, 510–511 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Mathews, J.A., Tan, H.: Economics: Manufacture renewables to build energy security. Nature. 513, 166–168 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Burke, M., Hsiang, S.M., Miguel, E.: Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production. Nature. 527, 235–239 (2015)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Olson, V.G., Heusner, C.L., Bland, R.J., During, M.J., Weinshenker, D., Palmiter, R.D.: Role of noradrenergic signaling by the nucleus tractus solitarius in mediating opiate reward. Science. 311, 1017–1020 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Richards, S.A., Hollerton, J.C.: Essential Practical NMR for Organic Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2010)
An edited book
Joshi, Y.M., Khandekar, S. eds: Nanoscale and Microscale Phenomena: Fundamentals and Applications. Springer India, New Delhi (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Achilleos, A.P., Thoma, M., Kapitsaki, G.M., Mettouris, C., Papadopoulos, G.A.: An Automation Component for Cross-Platform, Context-Aware Applications Development. In: Christiansen, H., Stojanovic, I., and Papadopoulos, G.A. (eds.) Modeling and Using Context: 9th International and Interdisciplinary Conference, CONTEXT 2015, Lanarca, Cyprus, November 2-6,2015. Proceedings. pp. 63–76. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proceedings - Mathematical Sciences.

Blog post
Fang, J.: See-Through Shrimp-Like Creature Has a Dozen Retinas in Each Eye,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Space Acquisitions: Stronger Development Practices and Investment Planning Needed to Address Continuing Problems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2005)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Waldron, K.D.: The Influence of Leadership Emotional Intelligence on Employee Engagement, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K.: Barbecue, Smoked and Sauced, (2009)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProceedings - Mathematical Sciences
ISSN (print)0253-4142
ISSN (online)0973-7685

Other styles