How to format your references using the Journal of Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blackburn GL. Pasteur’s Quadrant and malnutrition. Nature 2001;409:397-401.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hopkins R, Rausher MD. Identification of two genes causing reinforcement in the Texas wildflower Phlox drummondii. Nature 2011;469:411-4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chang M-M, Zhang J, Miao D. A lamprey from the Cretaceous Jehol biota of China. Nature 2006;441:972-4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Albert BB, Derraik JGB, Brennan CM, Biggs JB, Smith GC, Garg ML, et al. Higher omega-3 index is associated with increased insulin sensitivity and more favourable metabolic profile in middle-aged overweight men. Sci Rep 2014;4:6697.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Malhotra G. Chemical Process Simplification. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Tabata S, Stougaard J, editors. The Lotus japonicus Genome. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. XV, 267 p. 40 illus., 30 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Fischer M. Pear Breeding. In: Priyadarshan PM, Jain SM, editors. Breeding Plantation Tree Crops: Temperate Species New York, NY: Springer; 2009. p. 135-60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Rheumatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Video Describes Process of Bagging and Tagging Sharks [Internet]. IFLScience IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Experts’ and Stakeholders’ Views on Key Issues to Consider in a Potential Restructuring [Reissued on December 9, 2016]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016 Oct. Report No.: GAO-17-131.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ma D. Acyclic congeners of Cucurbit[n]uril and a related mechanistic study on the Cucurbit[n]uril forming reaction [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ember S, de la MERCED MJ. Sinclair Will Pay $3.9 Billion For Tribune. New York Times 2017;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Rheumatology
AbbreviationJ. Rheumatol.
ISSN (print)0315-162X
ISSN (online)1499-2752
Immunology and Allergy

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