How to format your references using the Journal of Rheumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Rheumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eggleston AK. RNA silencing. Nature 2009;457:395.
A journal article with 2 authors
Masiello CA, Louchouarn P. Ecology. Fire in the ocean. Science 2013;340:287-8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lepper C, Conway SJ, Fan C-M. Adult satellite cells and embryonic muscle progenitors have distinct genetic requirements. Nature 2009;460:627-31.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang Y-H, Chen S-P, Liao A-H, Yang Y-C, Lee C-R, Wu C-H, et al. Synergistic delivery of gold nanorods using multifunctional microbubbles for enhanced plasmonic photothermal therapy. Sci Rep 2014;4:5685.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rosier JA, Martens MA, Thomas JR. Global New Drug Development. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Vincent J, Taipale S, Sapio B, Lugano G, Fortunati L, editors. Social Robots from a Human Perspective. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XIII, 144 p. 12 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen Y-W, Lee Y-L, Peng I-H. Connection Control by Virtual Admission in Wireless LAN Environment. In: Cheng X, Li W, Znati T, editors. Wireless Algorithms, Systems, and Applications: First International Conference, WASA 2006, Xi’an, China, August 15-17, 2006 Proceedings Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 14-25.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Rheumatology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. The Magnetic Field Across The Magellanic Clouds Has Been Mapped for the First Time [Internet]. IFLScience IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Research Centers Supported by NSF. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981 Jun. Report No.: PAD-81-79.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fouts J. A mental health outreach program for adolescent gang members and at-risk youth: A grant writing project [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Perabo S. When Good Mothers Bully Back. New York Times 2017;ST8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Rheumatology
AbbreviationJ. Rheumatol.
ISSN (print)0315-162X
ISSN (online)1499-2752
Immunology and Allergy

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