How to format your references using the Procedia Economics and Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Procedia Economics and Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paszkowski, J., 2015. Epigenetics: The karma of oil palms. Nature 525, 466–467.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meissner, A., Jaenisch, R., 2006. Generation of nuclear transfer-derived pluripotent ES cells from cloned Cdx2-deficient blastocysts. Nature 439, 212–215.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, F., Saslow, W.M., Pokrovsky, V.L., 2013. Phase diagram for magnon condensate in Yttrium Iron Garnet film. Sci. Rep. 3, 1372.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zengin, G., Johansson, G., Johansson, P., Antosiewicz, T.J., Käll, M., Shegai, T., 2013. Approaching the strong coupling limit in single plasmonic nanorods interacting with J-aggregates. Sci. Rep. 3, 3074.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stone, C.A., Zissu, A., 2012. The Securitization Markets Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
O’Donnell, L., Nedjati-Gilani, G., Rathi, Y., Reisert, M., Schneider, T. (Eds.), 2014. Computational Diffusion MRI: MICCAI Workshop, Boston, MA, USA, September 2014, Mathematics and Visualization. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Ji, J., Jin, Q., 2014. Photo-Responsive Polymeric Nanocarriers for On-Demand Drug Delivery, in: Prokop, A., Iwasaki, Y., Harada, A. (Eds.), Intracellular Delivery II: Fundamentals and Applications, Fundamental Biomedical Technologies. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 93–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Procedia Economics and Finance.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016. How Should We Compensate Poor Countries For ‘Loss And Famage’ From Climate Change? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service’s Fiscal Year 2006 Expenditure Plan (No. GAO-06-360). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia, R.D., 2008. Designing an autonomous helicopter testbed: From conception through implementation (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tommasini, A., da FONSECA-WOLLHEIM, C., Oestreich, J.R., Allen, D., 2017. Sex and Death: It Must Be Opera. New York Times AR50.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Paszkowski, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Meissner and Jaenisch, 2006; Paszkowski, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meissner and Jaenisch, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Zengin et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleProcedia Economics and Finance
ISSN (print)2212-5671

Other styles