How to format your references using the Procedia Economics and Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Procedia Economics and Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weinstock, G.M., 2012. Genomic approaches to studying the human microbiota. Nature 489, 250–256.
A journal article with 2 authors
Herzog, M.H., Fahle, M., 2002. Effects of grouping in contextual modulation. Nature 415, 433–436.
A journal article with 3 authors
Walsh, J.P., Cho, C., Cohen, W.M., 2005. Science and law. View from the bench: patents and material transfers. Science 309, 2002–2003.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Thomas, A.L., Henderson, G.M., Deschamps, P., Yokoyama, Y., Mason, A.J., Bard, E., Hamelin, B., Durand, N., Camoin, G., 2009. Penultimate deglacial sea-level timing from uranium/thorium dating of Tahitian corals. Science 324, 1186–1189.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dubil, R., 2011. Financial Engineering and Arbitrage in the Financial Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Efimov, I.R., Kroll, M.W., Tchou, P.J. (Eds.), 2009. Cardiac Bioelectric Therapy: Mechanisms and Practical Implications. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Cendón, J.A., Marcos, A.G., Limas, M.C., Meré, J.O., 2010. A Multi-agent Data Mining System for Defect Forecasting in a Decentralized Manufacturing Environment, in: Herrero, Á., Corchado, E., Redondo, C., Alonso, Á. (Eds.), Computational Intelligence in Security for Information Systems 2010: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Computational Intelligence in Security for Information Systems (CISIS’10), Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 43–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Procedia Economics and Finance.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. This Is What The Underside Of An Iceberg Looks Like [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973. Protest Against Rejection of Bid (No. B-178720). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hughes, L.L., 2010. The principalship: Preparation programs and the self-efficacy of principals (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. A 96-Team Tournament? Now That’s Madness. New York Times SP6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weinstock, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Herzog and Fahle, 2002; Weinstock, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Herzog and Fahle, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Thomas et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleProcedia Economics and Finance
ISSN (print)2212-5671

Other styles