How to format your references using the Procedia Economics and Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Procedia Economics and Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Binder, P.-M., 2008. Mathematics. Frustration in complexity. Science 320, 322–323.
A journal article with 2 authors
Salehi-Ashtiani, K., Szostak, J.W., 2001. In vitro evolution suggests multiple origins for the hammerhead ribozyme. Nature 414, 82–84.
A journal article with 3 authors
Briggs, F., Mangun, G.R., Usrey, W.M., 2013. Attention enhances synaptic efficacy and the signal-to-noise ratio in neural circuits. Nature 499, 476–480.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Clayden, J., Lund, A., Vallverdú, L., Helliwell, M., 2004. Ultra-remote stereocontrol by conformational communication of information along a carbon chain. Nature 431, 966–971.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fernando, A., Worrall, S.T., Ekmekcioǧlu, E., 2013. 3DTV. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Patel, M., 2010. The Role of Model Integration in Complex Systems Modelling: An Example from Cancer Biology, Understanding Complex Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Karatzas, K.D., Papadourakis, G., Kyriakidis, I., 2009. Understanding and Forecasting Air Pollution with the Aid of Artificial Intelligence Methods in Athens, Greece, in: Koutsojannis, C., Sirmakessis, S. (Eds.), Tools and Applications with Artificial Intelligence, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 37–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Procedia Economics and Finance.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Brainy Bones: The Hidden Complexity Inside Your Skeleton [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Vocational Education: Information on the National Research Center’s Grant Award Process (No. HRD-88-56). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Weisko, P., 2017. Wading Tiger Swimming Dragon: A Study on Comparative Indo-Sino Naval Development (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O., 2015. Stepping Alone, Together. New York Times AR12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Binder, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Binder, 2008; Salehi-Ashtiani and Szostak, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Salehi-Ashtiani and Szostak, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Clayden et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleProcedia Economics and Finance
ISSN (print)2212-5671

Other styles