How to format your references using the Procedia Economics and Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Procedia Economics and Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D., 2002. Marie Curie doesn’t live here, Japanese women say. Nature 419, 768.
A journal article with 2 authors
Song, G., Zhang, W., 2014. First-principles study on the phase diagram and multiferroic properties of (SrCoO3)1/(SrTiO3)1 superlattices. Sci. Rep. 4, 4564.
A journal article with 3 authors
Winston, W.M., Molodowitch, C., Hunter, C.P., 2002. Systemic RNAi in C. elegans requires the putative transmembrane protein SID-1. Science 295, 2456–2459.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Taylor, S.S., Hardwick, K.G., Sawin, K.E., Biggins, S., Piatti, S., Khodjakov, A., Rieder, C.L., Salmon, E.D., Musacchio, A., 2007. Comment on “A centrosome-independent role for gamma-TuRC proteins in the spindle assembly checkpoint.” Science 316, 982; author reply 982.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wu, Z., 2007. Software VNA and Microwave Network Design and Characterisation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
O’Donohue, W.T. (Ed.), 2009. Behavioral Approaches to Chronic Disease in Adolescence: A Guide to Integrative Care. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Bunkowski, L., Hedstrom, A., 2014. Violent Environment: Women and Frontier Coffey County, Kansas: 1855–1880, in: Farris, D.N., Davis, M.A., Compton, D.R. (Eds.), Illuminating How Identities, Stereotypes and Inequalities Matter through Gender Studies. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 55–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Procedia Economics and Finance.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Climate Change And Hurricane Katrina: What Have We Learned? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Technology Transfer: Improving the Use of Cooperative R&D Agreements at DOE’s Contractor-Operated Laboratories (No. RCED-94-91). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shakya, S., 2013. Characterization of Interaction of Calmodulin and its Chimeras with Orai1 (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowley, S., 2017. New York Attorney General Opens Inquiry on Student Debt. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski, 2002; Song and Zhang, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Song and Zhang, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Taylor et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleProcedia Economics and Finance
ISSN (print)2212-5671

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