How to format your references using the Procedia Economics and Finance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Procedia Economics and Finance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Damasio, A., 2001. Fundamental feelings. Nature 413, 781.
A journal article with 2 authors
Birks, H.J.B., Birks, H.H., 2004. Paleoecology. The rise and fall of forests. Science 305, 484–485.
A journal article with 3 authors
Humanes-Valera, D., Foffani, G., Aguilar, J., 2014. Increased cortical responses to forepaw stimuli immediately after peripheral deafferentation of hindpaw inputs. Sci. Rep. 4, 7278.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Brunner, D., Gerardot, B.D., Dalgarno, P.A., Wüst, G., Karrai, K., Stoltz, N.G., Petroff, P.M., Warburton, R.J., 2009. A coherent single-hole spin in a semiconductor. Science 325, 70–72.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Young, M.R., 2013. Financial Fraud Prevention and Detection. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bakris, G.L. (Ed.), 2012. The Kidney in Heart Failure. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Sundberg, E.J., Andersen, P.S., Gorshkova, I.I., Schuck, P., 2007. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing in the Study of Ternary Systems of Interacting Proteins, in: Schuck, P. (Ed.), Protein Interactions: Biophysical Approaches for the Study of Complex Reversible Systems. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 97–141.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Procedia Economics and Finance.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Monkeys Accidentally Make Stone Flakes That Resemble Ancient Hominin Tools [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Information Technology: DHS’s Human Capital Plan Is Largely Consistent with Relevant Guidance, but Improvements and Implementation Steps Are Still Needed (No. GAO-07-425). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, D., 2009. Deus-ex-machina: A modern skeptic’s relentless scrutiny of the production of ethics in post-colonial literature and postcolonialism (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2013. In Detroit Ruling, Threats to Promises and Assumptions. New York Times A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Damasio, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Birks and Birks, 2004; Damasio, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Birks and Birks, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Brunner et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleProcedia Economics and Finance
ISSN (print)2212-5671

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