How to format your references using the Procedia Early Career Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Procedia Early Career Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rogers, J.A., 2010. Journal club. A materials scientist comments on two methods for three-dimensional nanofabrication. Nature 467, 9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, H., Kwon, S., 2013. Materials science. Water-responsive polymer composites on the move. Science 339, 150–151.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hwang, C.-S., Shemorry, A., Varshavsky, A., 2010. N-terminal acetylation of cellular proteins creates specific degradation signals. Science 327, 973–977.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Islam, F.S., Gault, A.G., Boothman, C., Polya, D.A., Charnock, J.M., Chatterjee, D., Lloyd, J.R., 2004. Role of metal-reducing bacteria in arsenic release from Bengal delta sediments. Nature 430, 68–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Funk, W., Dammann, V., Donnevert, G., Ianelli, S., Ianelli, E., Gray, A., 2006. Quality Assurance in Analytical Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Focosi, D. (Ed.), 2016. Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors, Resistance to Targeted Anti-Cancer Therapeutics. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Nagnibeda, E., Kustova, E., 2009. One-Temperature Model for Chemically Non-equilibrium Gas Mixtures, in: Kustova, E. (Ed.), Non-Equilibrium Reacting Gas Flows: Kinetic Theory of Transport and Relaxation Processes, Heat and Mass Transfer. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 97–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Procedia Early Career Research.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2015. Ireland Wants To Legalize Supervised Heroin Use [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Commercial Aviation: Costs and Major Factors Influencing Infrastructure Changes at U.S. Airports to Accomodate the New A380 Aircraft (No. GAO-06-571). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davidson, J.M., 2010. Transitional age youth—a program expansion to enhance existing services in Sonoma County: A grant-writing project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isherwood, C., 2016. Old Friends, Sifting Grief at a Reunion. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rogers, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Kim and Kwon, 2013; Rogers, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and Kwon, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Islam et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleProcedia Early Career Research
ISSN (print)2405-8815

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