How to format your references using the Procedia Early Career Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Procedia Early Career Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tempel, E., 2014. Cosmology: Meet the Laniakea supercluster. Nature 513, 41–42.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams, W.M., Ceci, S.J., 2005. Recruiters and academia. Academics worry about hiring “undiscovered geniuses.” Nature 435, 534.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hillenbrand, R., Taubner, T., Keilmann, F., 2002. Phonon-enhanced light matter interaction at the nanometre scale. Nature 418, 159–162.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Carosio, S., Barberi, L., Rizzuto, E., Nicoletti, C., Del Prete, Z., Musarò, A., 2013. Generation of eX vivo-vascularized Muscle Engineered Tissue (X-MET). Sci. Rep. 3, 1420.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bolstad, W.M., Curran, J.M., 2016. Introduction to Bayesian Statistics, Third Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Campolongo, P., Fattore, L. (Eds.), 2015. Cannabinoid Modulation of Emotion, Memory, and Motivation. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Urban, Z., 2015. Variational Principles for Immersed Submanifolds, in: Zenkov, D.V. (Ed.), The Inverse Problem of the Calculus of Variations: Local and Global Theory, Atlantis Studies in Variational Geometry. Atlantis Press, Paris, pp. 103–170.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Procedia Early Career Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2016. $10 Million Contest To Build A Real-Life Star Trek Tricorder Nears End [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1985. Evaluation of Army’s Mobile Subscriber Equipment Program (No. NSIAD-85-117). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schreiber, J.S., 2016. Discursive constructions of decline: Narratives of illness and financial stress among residents in assisted living (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J.R., 2017. Gods Get Ready for a New Holiday. New York Times C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tempel, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Tempel, 2014; Williams and Ceci, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Williams and Ceci, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Carosio et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleProcedia Early Career Research
ISSN (print)2405-8815

Other styles