How to format your references using the Procedia Early Career Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Procedia Early Career Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roch, S., 2010. Toward extracting all phylogenetic information from matrices of evolutionary distances. Science 327, 1376–1379.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moritz, C., Agudo, R., 2013. The future of species under climate change: resilience or decline? Science 341, 504–508.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weisbuch, M., Pauker, K., Ambady, N., 2009. The subtle transmission of race bias via televised nonverbal behavior. Science 326, 1711–1714.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Minamino, T., Morimoto, Y.V., Kinoshita, M., Aldridge, P.D., Namba, K., 2014. The bacterial flagellar protein export apparatus processively transports flagellar proteins even with extremely infrequent ATP hydrolysis. Sci. Rep. 4, 7579.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fink, J.K., 2016. Metallized and Magnetic Polymers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Walde, P. (Ed.), 2005. Prebiotic Chemistry, Topics in Current Chemistry. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Lemon, N., 2014. Sending Out a Tweet, in: Lemon, N., Garvis, S. (Eds.), Being “In and Out”: Providing Voice to Early Career Women in Academia. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 43–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Procedia Early Career Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Do You Know Which Organ This Is? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1972. Follow-up Review on Assistance to War Victims in Vietnam (No. B-133001). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stephenson, J.H., 2010. Ethics and morality in software development: A developer’s perspective (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. More Teams Would Ruin a Great Thing. New York Times B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roch, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Moritz and Agudo, 2013; Roch, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moritz and Agudo, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Minamino et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleProcedia Early Career Research
ISSN (print)2405-8815

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