How to format your references using the Procedia Early Career Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Procedia Early Career Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ghahramani, Z., 2000. Computational neuroscience. Building blocks of movement. Nature 407, 682–683.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yi, X., Liu, C., 2014. Retention of cotyledons is crucial for resprouting of clipped oak seedlings. Sci. Rep. 4, 5145.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaan, H.Y.K., Hackney, D.D., Kozielski, F., 2011. The structure of the kinesin-1 motor-tail complex reveals the mechanism of autoinhibition. Science 333, 883–885.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rooney, H.C.E., Van’t Klooster, J.W., van der Hoorn, R.A.L., Joosten, M.H.A.J., Jones, J.D.G., de Wit, P.J.G.M., 2005. Cladosporium Avr2 inhibits tomato Rcr3 protease required for Cf-2-dependent disease resistance. Science 308, 1783–1786.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kazimierczuk, M.K., 2014. RF Power Amplifiers. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Mahlich, J.C., Pascha, W. (Eds.), 2007. Innovation and Technology in Korea: Challenges of a Newly Advanced Economy. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Grishchuk, S., Schledjewski, R., 2013. Mechanical Dispersion Methods for Carbon Nanotubes in Aerospace Composite Matrix Systems, in: Paipetis, A., Kostopoulos, V. (Eds.), Carbon Nanotube Enhanced Aerospace Composite Materials: A New Generation of Multifunctional Hybrid Structural Composites, Solid Mechanics and Its Applications. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 99–154.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Procedia Early Career Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Colorful “Dragon Scales” On Pluto Perplex Scientists [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Public Transportation: Preliminary Analysis of Changes to and Trends in FTA’s New Starts and Small Starts Programs (No. GAO-07-812T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Raines, J.R., 2010. Exploring differences in teacher attitudes and instructional strategies between traditional and block schedule high schools: A comparison of two large schools (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J., Gebeloff, R., 2016. Segregation, the Neighbor That Won’t Leave. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ghahramani, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Ghahramani, 2000; Yi and Liu, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yi and Liu, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Rooney et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleProcedia Early Career Research
ISSN (print)2405-8815

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