How to format your references using the Procedia Early Career Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Procedia Early Career Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yutzey, K.E., 2014. Cardiovascular biology: Switched at birth. Nature 509, 572–573.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, J., Genack, A.Z., 2011. Transport through modes in random media. Nature 471, 345–348.
A journal article with 3 authors
Piovia-Scott, J., Spiller, D.A., Schoener, T.W., 2011. Effects of experimental seaweed deposition on lizard and ant predation in an island food web. Science 331, 461–463.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, X., Xu, F., Zhu, C., Ji, J., Zhou, X., Feng, X., Guang, S., 2014. Dual sgRNA-directed gene knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 technology in Caenorhabditis elegans. Sci. Rep. 4, 7581.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Foote, M., Hillier, J., Mitchell-Wallace, K., Jones, M., 2017. Natural catastrophe risk management and modelling. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Freudenthal, G., McLaughlin, P. (Eds.), 2009. The Social and Economic Roots of the Scientific Revolution: Texts by Boris Hessen and Henryk Grossmann, 1st ed, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Vick, A., Vydyanathan, A., Safi, T., Gritsenko, K., 2015. Perioperative Considerations in Pharmacology, in: Kaye, A.D., Kaye, A.M., Urman, R.D. (Eds.), Essentials of Pharmacology for Anesthesia, Pain Medicine, and Critical Care. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 87–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Procedia Early Career Research.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. What Lies Beneath Antarctica’s Ice? Lakes, Life And The Grandest Of Canyons [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Telecommunications: The Effect of Competition From Satellite Providers on Cable Rates (No. RCED-00-164). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lupian, S., 2012. Educating the Latino community on the relationship between obesity and psychosocial well being (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2012. Behind a Gifted Horse, A Powerful Part-Owner. New York Times B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yutzey, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Wang and Genack, 2011; Yutzey, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Genack, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleProcedia Early Career Research
ISSN (print)2405-8815

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