How to format your references using the Procedia Early Career Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Procedia Early Career Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2002. Empire building: Vienna. Nature 416, 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wheeler, T., von Braun, J., 2013. Climate change impacts on global food security. Science 341, 508–513.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bylinskii, A., Gangloff, D., Vuletić, V., 2015. Friction. Tuning friction atom-by-atom in an ion-crystal simulator. Science 348, 1115–1118.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ting, D.T., Lipson, D., Paul, S., Brannigan, B.W., Akhavanfard, S., Coffman, E.J., Contino, G., Deshpande, V., Iafrate, A.J., Letovsky, S., Rivera, M.N., Bardeesy, N., Maheswaran, S., Haber, D.A., 2011. Aberrant overexpression of satellite repeats in pancreatic and other epithelial cancers. Science 331, 593–596.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cornier, J., Owen, A., Kwade, A., Van de Voorde, M., 2017. Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology: Innovation and Production. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Ivanov, I., van Sinderen, M., Shishkov, B. (Eds.), 2012. Cloud Computing and Services Science, Service Science: Research and Innovations in the Service Economy. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Yang, M., Yang, Y., 2016. Network Coding in Application Layer Multicast, in: Qin, Y. (Ed.), Network Coding at Different Layers in Wireless Networks. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 117–177.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Procedia Early Career Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. ‘White Whale’: Wild Orca Is One Of Only Four Of Its Kind Ever Seen [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Highway Trust Fund: Overview of Highway Trust Fund Estimates (No. GAO-06-572T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vestergaard, E.V., 2015. The shadow in Latvian mythological legends: A Jungian perspective (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B., 2017. Leader of Chiefs’ Special Teams Gives the Humble Punt Its Due. New York Times SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2002; Wheeler and von Braun, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wheeler and von Braun, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Ting et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleProcedia Early Career Research
ISSN (print)2405-8815

Other styles