How to format your references using the Retrovirology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Retrovirology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Clapham DE. Signal transduction. Hot and cold TRP ion channels. Science. 2002;295:2228–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ernst MO, Banks MS. Humans integrate visual and haptic information in a statistically optimal fashion. Nature. 2002;415:429–33.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Shuman ES, Barry JF, Demille D. Laser cooling of a diatomic molecule. Nature. 2010;467:820–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Choi KS, Deng H, Laurat J, Kimble HJ. Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory. Nature. 2008;452:67–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Rosplock K. The Complete Direct Investing Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Munoz R, Morell V, Cruz E, Vetterly C, editors. Critical Care of Children with Heart Disease: Basic Medical and Surgical Concepts. London: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Tabbush P, Frederiksen P, Edwards D. Impact Assessment in the European Commission in relation to Multifunctional Land Use. In: Helming K, Pérez-Soba M, Tabbush P, editors. Sustainability Impact Assessment of Land Use Changes. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 35–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Retrovirology.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Dinosaur Extinction Extended To The Antarctic [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. NASA Procurement: Approach to Sharing Risk Under Certain Research and Development Contracts Is Starting to Change. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Mar. Report No.: T-NSIAD-92-12.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Robinson-Scott D. Policy analysis of the Chafee Foster Care Independence Act of 1999 [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kenigsberg B. Toys, Manolos and Tennis Champs. New York Times. 2017 Sep 8;AR72.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRetrovirology
ISSN (online)1742-4690
Infectious Diseases

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