How to format your references using the Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sartorius N. Short-lived campaigns are not enough. Nature. 2010;468(7321):163-165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shaw AS, Huang Y. Immunology. CAR’ing for the skin. Science. 2010;329(5996):1154-1155.
A journal article with 3 authors
Giovannetti V, Lloyd S, Maccone L. Quantum-enhanced positioning and clock synchronization. Nature. 2001;412(6845):417-419.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xiong G, Clark JN, Nicklin C, Rawle J, Robinson IK. Atomic diffusion within individual gold nanocrystal. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6765.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang J, Wang Q. Body Area Communications. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Zhou J. Adaptive Backstepping Control of Uncertain Systems: Nonsmooth Nonlinearities, Interactions or Time-Variations. Vol 372. (Wen C, ed.). Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Hamida STB, Ahmed B, Cvetkovic D, Jovanov E, Kennedy G, Penzel T. A New Era in Sleep Monitoring: The Application of Mobile Technologies in Insomnia Diagnosis. In: Adibi S, ed. Mobile Health: A Technology Road Map. Springer Series in Bio-/Neuroinformatics. Springer International Publishing; 2015:101-127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

Blog post
Andrews R. Icelandic Scientists Just Successfully Drilled Into A Volcano’s Belly. IFLScience. Published February 7, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Department of Education: Management of the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bustos I. Backpacking Through My Suburban Barrio: Eco-Latina Diaries. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Landler M. Trump to a Grieving City: ‘This Is a Rough Time.’ New York Times. October 4, 2017:A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
AbbreviationJ. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther.
ISSN (print)1080-7683
ISSN (online)1557-7732
Pharmacology (medical)

Other styles