How to format your references using the Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chisholm SW. Stirring times in the Southern Ocean. Nature. 2000;407(6805):685-687.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hsiao JC, Fong K. Making big money from small technology. Nature. 2004;428(6979):218-220.
A journal article with 3 authors
Usdin M, Guillerm M, Chirac P. Neglected tests for neglected patients. Nature. 2006;441(7091):283-284.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Samuelson JC, Chen M, Jiang F, et al. YidC mediates membrane protein insertion in bacteria. Nature. 2000;406(6796):637-641.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Biegelman MT. Faces of Fraud. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Massacci F, Wallach D, Zannone N, eds. Engineering Secure Software and Systems: Second International Symposium, ESSoS 2010, Pisa, Italy, February 3-4, 2010. Proceedings. Vol 5965. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Comer TA. The Hidden Architecture of Disability: Chris Ware’s Building Stories. In: Foss C, Gray JW, Whalen Z, eds. Disability in Comic Books and Graphic Narratives. Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016:44-58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Watch SpaceX’s Falcon 9 Rocket Launch LIVE. IFLScience. Published September 20, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Intercollegiate Athletics: Comparison of Selected Characteristics for Men’s and Women’s Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Young JL. A community college’s loss of accreditation: A case study. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Fire Up the Grill. New York Times. May 31, 2009:NJ8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
AbbreviationJ. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther.
ISSN (print)1080-7683
ISSN (online)1557-7732
Pharmacology (medical)

Other styles