How to format your references using the Journal of Knee Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Knee Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Julien M-H. Physics. Magnetic fields make waves in cuprates. Science. 2015;350(6263):914-915.
A journal article with 2 authors
Farrow T, Vedral V. Scale-estimation of quantum coherent energy transport in multiple-minima systems. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5520.
A journal article with 3 authors
Menz MHM, Dixon KW, Hobbs RJ. Ecology. Hurdles and opportunities for landscape-scale restoration. Science. 2013;339(6119):526-527.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tsurumi A, Dutta P, Dutta P, et al. Drosophila Kdm4 demethylases in histone H3 lysine 9 demethylation and ecdysteroid signaling. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2894.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hansen S, Pedersen-Bjergaard S, Rasmussen K. Introduction to Pharmaceutical Chemical Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Szewczyk R, Zieliński C, Kaliczyńska M, eds. Progress in Automation, Robotics and Measuring Techniques: Volume 2 Robotics. Vol 351. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Lehký D, Šomodíková M. Reliability Analysis of Post-Tensioned Bridge Using Artificial Neural Network-Based Surrogate Model. In: Iliadis L, Jayne C, eds. Engineering Applications of Neural Networks: 16th International Conference, EANN 2015, Rhodes, Greece, September 25-28 2015.Proceedings. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:35-44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Knee Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Is It Time To Take Science Out Of The Climate Change Debate? IFLScience. Published January 22, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Student Aid: Progress in Integrating Pell Grant and Direct Loan Systems and Processes, but Critical Work Remains. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hagarty EP. A predictive risk modeling system for the management of small-scale water and wastewater facilities: Toward long-term sustainability of our national parks. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. Soccer Gets a Second Look. New York Times. July 20, 2017:B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Knee Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Knee Surg.
ISSN (print)1538-8506
ISSN (online)1938-2480
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles