How to format your references using the Journal of Knee Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Knee Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith O. Biomedicine. Nota bene. In the nic of time. Science. 2001;294(5549):2118.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feuillet C, Eversole K. Plant science. Solving the maze. Science. 2009;326(5956):1071-1072.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kogan A, Amasha S, Kastner MA. Photon-induced Kondo satellites in a single-electron transistor. Science. 2004;304(5675):1293-1295.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Meng Q, Frankel GS, Colijn HO, Goss SH. Metallurgy: stainless-steel corrosion and MnS inclusions. Nature. 2003;424(6947):389-390; discussion 390.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Basener WF. Topology and Its Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Mao Q. Control of Noise and Structural Vibration: A MATLAB®-Based Approach. (Pietrzko S, ed.). Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Etxebarria N, Navarro P, Prieto A, et al. Extraction Procedures for Organic Pollutants Determination in Water. In: Lichtfouse E, Schwarzbauer J, Robert D, eds. Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World: Volume 2: Remediation of Air and Water Pollution. Springer Netherlands; 2012:171-235.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Knee Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E. Seven Ways That Chemistry Puts The Magic Into Christmas. IFLScience. Published December 19, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Propriety of Additional Reimbursement for Shipment of Household Effects. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Popoveniuc S. A Framework for Secure Mixnet-Based Electronic Voting. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman W, Romero S. Allies Resist U.S. Strategy in Drug Fight. New York Times. May 16, 2015:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Knee Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Knee Surg.
ISSN (print)1538-8506
ISSN (online)1938-2480
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles