How to format your references using the Journal of Knee Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Knee Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schreiber MR. Astronomy. One good measure. Science. 2013;340(6135):932-933.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rauch SL, Carlezon WA Jr. Neuroscience. Illuminating the neural circuitry of compulsive behaviors. Science. 2013;340(6137):1174-1175.
A journal article with 3 authors
Turney CSM, Roberts RG, Jacobs Z. Archaeology: progress and pitfalls in radiocarbon dating. Nature. 2006;443(7108):E3; discussion E4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang S, Li E, Porth I, Chen J-G, Mansfield SD, Douglas CJ. Regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis by poplar R2R3 MYB transcription factor PtrMYB152 in Arabidopsis. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5054.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnett JE, Johnson WB. Ethics Desk Reference for Counselors. American Counseling Association; 2015.
An edited book
Satapathy SC, Bhatt YC, Joshi A, Mishra DK, eds. Proceedings of the International Congress on Information and Communication Technology: ICICT 2015, Volume 1. Vol 438. Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Bailly C, Comte-Bellot G. Free Turbulent Flows: Jets and Wakes. In: Comte-Bellot G, ed. Turbulence. Experimental Fluid Mechanics. Springer International Publishing; 2015:85-112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Knee Surgery.

Blog post
Hale T. Dig Begins For Legendary Nazi Gold Train. IFLScience. Published August 17, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Influence Of Public Affairs Organizations On Information And Advertising Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Capelli AM. The (Un)Balanced Canon: Re-Visioning Feminist Conceptions of Madness and Transgression. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Donadio R. Russian Artist to Seek Asylum in France. New York Times. January 17, 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Knee Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Knee Surg.
ISSN (print)1538-8506
ISSN (online)1938-2480
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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