How to format your references using the Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Poskett, Mathematics: a life computed, Nature. 486 (2012) 321.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.R. Flanagan, R.S. Johansson, Action plans used in action observation, Nature. 424 (2003) 769–771.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.H. Schwartz, I. Tattersall, Z. Chi, Comment on “A complete skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the evolutionary biology of early Homo,” Science. 344 (2014) 360.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.E. Bragg, J.R.R. Verlet, A. Kammrath, O. Cheshnovsky, D.M. Neumark, Hydrated electron dynamics: from clusters to bulk, Science. 306 (2004) 669–671.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. Jank, G. Shmueli, Modeling Online Auctions, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
O.-A. Olsen, ed., Endosperm: Developmental and Molecular Biology, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Van Dyke, M. Meketon, Railway Blocking Process, in: B.W. Patty (Ed.), Handbook of Operations Research Applications at Railroads, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2015: pp. 119–162.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Low-Carbohydrate Diets May Be Useless For Weight Loss, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Procedures for Evaluating Research and Development Contracts in the Department of Transportation, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Hall, Resistance, reluctance, and revelation: Examining faculty perceptions of online learning options at a Faith-Based university, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Childs, Pimco and Star Investor Settle Venomous War Over His Ouster, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProbabilistic Engineering Mechanics
AbbreviationProbabilistic Eng. Mech.
ISSN (print)0266-8920
ScopeNuclear Energy and Engineering
Aerospace Engineering
Civil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Ocean Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics

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