How to format your references using the Games citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Games. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. Halt the Avalanche of Performance Metrics. Nature 2013, 500, 255.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mercer, J.M.; Roth, V.L. The Effects of Cenozoic Global Change on Squirrel Phylogeny. Science 2003, 299, 1568–1572.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grunwald, R.; Elsaesser, T.; Bock, M. Spatio-Temporal Coherence Mapping of Few-Cycle Vortex Pulses. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7148.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Moukhametzianov, R.; Klare, J.P.; Efremov, R.; Baeken, C.; Göppner, A.; Labahn, J.; Engelhard, M.; Büldt, G.; Gordeliy, V.I. Development of the Signal in Sensory Rhodopsin and Its Transfer to the Cognate Transducer. Nature 2006, 440, 115–119.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Koepsell, D. Who Owns You?; John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2015; ISBN 9781118948439.
An edited book
Saakov, V.S. Derivative Spectrophotometry and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy for Ecological and Biological Questions; Drapkin, V.Z., Krivchenko, A.I., Rozengart, E.V., Bogachev, Y.V., Knyazev, M.N., Eds.; Springer: Vienna, 2013; ISBN 9783709110065.
A chapter in an edited book
Bourgain, J. An Improved Estimate in the Restricted Isometry Problem. In Geometric Aspects of Functional Analysis: Israel Seminar (GAFA) 2011-2013; Klartag, B., Milman, E., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Mathematics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 65–70 ISBN 9783319094762.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Games.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Scientists Strap Cameras On Squid To Observe Their Flashy Behavior Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Transportation Security Administration: TSA Executive Attrition Has Declined, but Better Information Is Needed on Reasons for Leaving and Executive Hiring Process; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2009;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pahuja, S. Bandwidth Feedback Effects on Retained Movements in Young and Old Adults. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. The Phantom Typist Revealed. New York Times 2000, 14WC8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGames
ISSN (online)2073-4336
ScopeStatistics, Probability and Uncertainty
Applied Mathematics
Statistics and Probability

Other styles