How to format your references using the International Journal of Approximate Reasoning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Approximate Reasoning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Wadman, When the party’s over, Nature. 445 (2007) 13.
A journal article with 2 authors
B.L. Levine, C.H. June, Perspective: assembly line immunotherapy, Nature. 498 (2013) S17.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.J. Corcoran, J.R. Barber, W.E. Conner, Tiger moth jams bat sonar, Science. 325 (2009) 325–327.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.B. Siegel, A. Zanghellini, H.M. Lovick, G. Kiss, A.R. Lambert, J.L. St Clair, J.L. Gallaher, D. Hilvert, M.H. Gelb, B.L. Stoddard, K.N. Houk, F.E. Michael, D. Baker, Computational design of an enzyme catalyst for a stereoselective bimolecular Diels-Alder reaction, Science. 329 (2010) 309–313.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Calloway, Becoming a Category of One, Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
An edited book
C.R. Soccol, S.K. Brar, C. Faulds, L.P. Ramos, eds., Green Fuels Technology: Biofuels, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Albert, J. Correas, G. Román-Díez, Resource Analysis of Distributed Systems, in: E. Ábrahám, M. Bonsangue, E.B. Johnsen (Eds.), Theory and Practice of Formal Methods: Essays Dedicated to Frank de Boer on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 33–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Approximate Reasoning.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Informed Consent For Stem Cell Research: Why It Matters And What You Should Know, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA: Compliance with Cost Limits, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.A. Perlstein, Support for families affected by incarceration: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G.G. Gustines, A Human Superstar Among the Superheroes, New York Times. (2012) C33.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Approximate Reasoning
AbbreviationInt. J. Approx. Reason.
ISSN (print)0888-613X
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Applied Mathematics
Theoretical Computer Science

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