How to format your references using the International Journal of Approximate Reasoning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Approximate Reasoning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Mills, Climate change. The greening of insurance, Science. 338 (2012) 1424–1425.
A journal article with 2 authors
H.-J. Jin, J. Weissmüller, A material with electrically tunable strength and flow stress, Science. 332 (2011) 1179–1182.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Wang, J. Chen, R.T. Corlett, Factors influencing repeated seed movements by scatter-hoarding rodents in an alpine forest, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4786.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X. Lu, B. Huang, J. Zheng, Y. Tao, W. Yu, L. Tang, R. Zhu, S. Li, L. Li, Decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7070.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Alladin, Integrative CBT for Anxiety Disorders, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
R.A. Schwartz, J.A. Byrne, A. Colaninno, eds., Technology and Regulation: How Are They Driving Our Markets?, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
R.N. Giere, History and Philosophy of Science: Thirty-Five Years Later, in: S. Mauskopf, T. Schmaltz (Eds.), Integrating History and Philosophy of Science: Problems and Prospects, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011: pp. 59–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Approximate Reasoning.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Bacteria Can Make Zero-Viscosity Superfluids, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Delayed-Baggage Trends and Options for Compensating Passengers, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. Balakrishnan, Cognitive radio cooperative spectrum sensing, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, Pension Fraud By New Jersey Cited by S.E.C, New York Times. (2010) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Approximate Reasoning
AbbreviationInt. J. Approx. Reason.
ISSN (print)0888-613X
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Applied Mathematics
Theoretical Computer Science

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