How to format your references using the International Journal of Approximate Reasoning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Approximate Reasoning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Hodges, Computer science. Beyond Turing’s machines, Science. 336 (2012) 163–164.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.M. Berry, J.P. Armitage, Microbiology. How bacteria change gear, Science. 320 (2008) 1599–1600.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Kuzuyama, J.P. Noel, S.B. Richard, Structural basis for the promiscuous biosynthetic prenylation of aromatic natural products, Nature. 435 (2005) 983–987.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.M. Morris, M.S. Rappé, S.A. Connon, K.L. Vergin, W.A. Siebold, C.A. Carlson, S.J. Giovannoni, SAR11 clade dominates ocean surface bacterioplankton communities, Nature. 420 (2002) 806–810.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.F. Gray, S.W. Malone, Macrofinancial Risk Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK, 2008.
An edited book
C.R. Baumann, C.L. Bassetti, T.E. Scammell, eds., Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment, Springer, New York, NY, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
T.N.B. Pascual, S. Ros, P. Engel-Hills, R.K. Chhem, Medical Competency in Postgraduate Medical Training Programs, in: K.M. Hibbert, R.K. Chhem, T. van Deven, S.-C. Wang (Eds.), Radiology Education: The Evaluation and Assessment of Clinical Competence, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 29–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Approximate Reasoning.

Blog post
K. Evans, NASA’s $1 Billion Jupiter Probe Just Sent Back Breathtaking New Images Of The Gas Giant, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, State Department: Tourist Visa Processing Backlogs Persist at U.S. Consulates, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.-G. Charles, African American Ninth-Grade Students’ Engagement and Learning in Mathematics: A Case Study of Parent-Teacher Collaboration, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, A Personal Quest For a White Shirt, New York Times. (2013) E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Approximate Reasoning
AbbreviationInt. J. Approx. Reason.
ISSN (print)0888-613X
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Applied Mathematics
Theoretical Computer Science

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