How to format your references using the International Journal of Approximate Reasoning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Approximate Reasoning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Wadman, A merger too far?, Nature. 446 (2007) 15.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.H. Orkin, D.R. Higgs, Medicine. Sickle cell disease at 100 years, Science. 329 (2010) 291–292.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.W. Taylor, R.W. Thacker, U. Hentschel, Genetics. Evolutionary insights from sponges, Science. 316 (2007) 1854–1855.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Geng, P.L. Almeida, S.N. Fernandes, C. Cheng, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M.H. Godinho, A cellulose liquid crystal motor: a steam engine of the second kind, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1028.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Z.-G. Wang, Internal Combustion Processes of Liquid Rocket Engines, John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte Ltd, Singapore, 2016.
An edited book
J.A. Fuerst, ed., Planctomycetes: Cell Structure, Origins and Biology, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Yang, H. Lin, Y. Lin, Sentiment Analysis Based on Chinese Thinking Modes, in: M. Zhou, G. Zhou, D. Zhao, Q. Liu, L. Zou (Eds.), Natural Language Processing and Chinese Computing: First CCF Conference, NLPCC 2012, Beijing, China, October 31-November 5, 2012. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 46–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Approximate Reasoning.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, What Can A 1.7-Million-Year-Old Hominid Fossil Teach Us About Cancer?, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA: Agency Has Taken Steps Toward Making Sound Investment Decisions for Ares I but Still Faces Challenging Knowledge Gaps, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.L. Boerner, The organizational culture and leadership values that impact Native American water utility organizations, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Hollander, Powell Leads Syracuse; Princeton Survives, New York Times. (2000) 88.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Approximate Reasoning
AbbreviationInt. J. Approx. Reason.
ISSN (print)0888-613X
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Applied Mathematics
Theoretical Computer Science

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