How to format your references using the Prion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Prion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lynch-Stieglitz J. Ocean science. Hemispheric asynchrony of abrupt climate change. Science 2004; 304:1919–20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rozema J, Flowers T. Ecology. Crops for a salinized world. Science 2008; 322:1478–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim S, Ubel P, De Vries R. Pruning the regulatory tree. Nature 2009; 457:534–5.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
König R, Stertz S, Zhou Y, Inoue A, Hoffmann H-H, Bhattacharyya S, Alamares JG, Tscherne DM, Ortigoza MB, Liang Y, et al. Human host factors required for influenza virus replication. Nature 2010; 463:813–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gaisford S, Saunders M. Essentials of Pharmaceutical Preformulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Bernier J, editor. Head and Neck Cancer: Multimodality Management. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Mobilio S. Introduction to Matter Radiation Interaction. In: Mobilio S, Boscherini F, Meneghini C, editors. Synchrotron Radiation: Basics, Methods and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. page 107–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Prion.

Blog post
Fang J. Are Infectious Diseases Spreading Through Bat Caves And Bat Meat In West Africa? [Internet]. IFLScience2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Energy Research: Opportunities Exist to Recover Federal Investment in Technology Development Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shimazoe J. The power of forgotten opinions: Why an organization chooses inaction over the public’s safety. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. An Aria for the Little Rock Nine. New York Times2017; :C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePrion
ISSN (print)1993-6896
ISSN (online)1933-690X
Cell Biology
Infectious Diseases
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Other styles