How to format your references using the Prion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Prion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Food for thought. Nature 2003; 423:665.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eldar A, Elowitz MB. Functional roles for noise in genetic circuits. Nature 2010; 467:167–73.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baum P, Yang D-S, Zewail AH. 4D visualization of transitional structures in phase transformations by electron diffraction. Science 2007; 318:788–92.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Montañez IP, Tabor NJ, Niemeier D, Dimichele WA, Frank TD, Fielding CR, Isbell JL, Birgenheier LP, Rygel MC. CO2-forced climate and vegetation instability during Late Paleozoic deglaciation. Science 2007; 315:87–91.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kulaev IS, Vagabov VM, Kulakovskaya TV. The Biochemistry of Inorganic Polyphosphates. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Foelsch PA. Adolescent Identity Treatment: An Integrative Approach for Personality Pathology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Milone EF, Wilson WJF. Satellite and Ring Systems. In: Wilson WJF, editor. Solar System Astrophysics: Planetary Atmospheres and the Outer Solar System. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. page 521–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Prion.

Blog post
Andrew E. Real Crisis In Psychology Isn’t That Studies Don’t Replicate, But That We Usually Don’t Even Try. IFLScience2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Critical Infrastructure Protection: Comments on the National Plan for Information Systems Protection. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pan S. Cybersecurity testing and intrusion detection for cyber-physical power systems. 2014;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times2016; :MM24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePrion
ISSN (print)1993-6896
ISSN (online)1933-690X
Cell Biology
Infectious Diseases
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Other styles