How to format your references using the Primate Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Primate Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ferrara, A.: Astronomy. Radio noise from dust grains, Science, 295, 638–639, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Uchida, M. and Tonomura, A.: Generation of electron beams carrying orbital angular momentum, Nature, 464, 737–739, 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
Samokhvalov, A. V., Shekhter, R. I., and Buzdin, A. I.: Stimulation of a singlet superconductivity in SFS weak links by spin-exchange scattering of cooper pairs, Sci. Rep., 4, 5671, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Coltman, D. W., O’Donoghue, P., Jorgenson, J. T., Hogg, J. T., Strobeck, C., and Festa-Bianchet, M.: Undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting, Nature, 426, 655–658, 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raeburn, D.: Greek Tragedies as Plays for Performance, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
Schouten, B., Fedtke, S., Schijven, M., Vosmeer, M., and Gekker, A. (Eds.): Games for Health 2014: Proceedings of the 4th conference on gaming and playful interaction in healthcare, Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden, X, 154 p. 30 illus., 28 illus. in color pp., 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Cuypers, A., Keunen, E., Bohler, S., Jozefczak, M., Opdenakker, K., Gielen, H., Vercampt, H., Bielen, A., Schellingen, K., Vangronsveld, J., and Remans, T.: Cadmium and Copper Stress Induce a Cellular Oxidative Challenge Leading to Damage Versus Signalling, in: Metal Toxicity in Plants: Perception, Signaling and Remediation, edited by: Gupta, D. K. and Sandalio, L. M., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 65–90, 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Primate Biology.

Blog post
Watch The Moment A Herd Of Bison Are Returned To Canada’s Oldest National Park:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: NASA: Constellation Program Cost and Schedule Will Remain Uncertain Until a Sound Business Case Is Established, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Al-Qazzaz, A. L.: A kinetic study of the radiolytic degradation of phthalates in aqueous solutions, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. and Schonbrun, Z.: A Comeback and a Controversial Call Provide Some Crackle on Day 2, New York Times, 18th March, D3, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ferrara, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Ferrara, 2002; Uchida and Tonomura, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Uchida and Tonomura, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Coltman et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePrimate Biology
ISSN (print)2363-4707
ISSN (online)2363-4715

Other styles