How to format your references using the Primate Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Primate Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garwin, L.: Schrödinger’s mousetrap. Part 4, Nature, 433, 579, 2005.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schorlemmer, D. and Wiemer, S.: Earth science: microseismicity data forecast rupture area, Nature, 434, 1086, 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
Laliberté, E., Zemunik, G., and Turner, B. L.: Environmental filtering explains variation in plant diversity along resource gradients, Science, 345, 1602–1605, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Corces, M. R., Granja, J. M., Shams, S., Louie, B. H., Seoane, J. A., Zhou, W., Silva, T. C., Groeneveld, C., Wong, C. K., Cho, S. W., Satpathy, A. T., Mumbach, M. R., Hoadley, K. A., Robertson, A. G., Sheffield, N. C., Felau, I., Castro, M. A. A., Berman, B. P., Staudt, L. M., Zenklusen, J. C., Laird, P. W., Curtis, C., Cancer Genome Atlas Analysis Network, Greenleaf, W. J., and Chang, H. Y.: The chromatin accessibility landscape of primary human cancers, Science, 362, 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mullaney, M. D.: The Complete Guide to Option Strategies, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
An edited book
Zheng, K.: Heterogeneous Vehicular Networks, 1st ed. 2016., edited by: Zhang, L., Xiang, W., and Wang, W., Springer International Publishing, Cham, XI, 82 p. 32 illus., 18 illus. in color pp., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Jackson, I. L., Rubin, P., Hadley, C., and Vujaskovic, Z.: Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Induced Injury, in: ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment: Volume 1: General Concepts and Specific Precepts, edited by: Rubin, P., Constine, L. S., and Marks, L. B., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 41–51, 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Primate Biology.

Blog post
Slow Motion Video Reveals How Raindrops Fall on Sand Like Asteroids:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airport Finance: Information on Funding Sources and Planned Capital Development, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramotar-John, B. P.: Supplementing soybean meal with Camelina (Camelina sativa) in tilapia diets and optimizing commercial tilapia diets for use in intensive systems in the Western region of the United States, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W.: A Warning on Bankruptcy in Puerto Rico’s Debt Crisis, New York Times, 3rd February, B3, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Garwin, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Garwin, 2005; Schorlemmer and Wiemer, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schorlemmer and Wiemer, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Corces et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titlePrimate Biology
ISSN (print)2363-4707
ISSN (online)2363-4715

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