How to format your references using the Primate Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Primate Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crooks, R. M.: Therapeutics: Detective work on drug dosage, Nature, 505, 165–166, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Davidson, A. L. and Chen, J.: Structural biology. Flipping lipids: is the third time the charm?, Science, 308, 963–965, 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fashami, M. S., Atulasimha, J., and Bandyopadhyay, S.: Energy dissipation and error probability in fault-tolerant binary switching, Sci. Rep., 3, 3204, 2013.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Allison, T. J., Winter, C. C., Fournié, J. J., Bonneville, M., and Garboczi, D. N.: Structure of a human gammadelta T-cell antigen receptor, Nature, 411, 820–824, 2001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
American Institute of Timber Constr: Timber Construction Manual, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
Long, S. and Dhillon, B. S. (Eds.): Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Man–Machine–Environment System Engineering, 1st ed. 2015., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, XXIV, 720 p. 186 illus., 111 illus. in color pp., 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Shi, J., Cheng, L., Gershon, E. S., and Liu, C.: G72/G30 in Neuropsychiatric Disorders, in: Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology: Schizophrenia, edited by: Lajtha, A., Javitt, D., and Kantrowitz, J., Springer US, Boston, MA, 91–106, 2009.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Primate Biology.

Blog post
India Is Set To Spend Over $6 Billion On Restoring Their Forests:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Commercial Space Launches: FAA’s Risk Assessment Process Is Not Yet Updated, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sammons, J. L.: Perceived benefits of and barriers to physical exercise in people with severe mental illness, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gurley, G.: London To Harlem Via Chelsea, New York Times, 18th April, E1, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crooks, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Crooks, 2014; Davidson and Chen, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Davidson and Chen, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Allison et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePrimate Biology
ISSN (print)2363-4707
ISSN (online)2363-4715

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