How to format your references using the Primate Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Primate Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blatt, R.: Delicate information, Nature, 412(6849), 773, 2001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacob, Y. and Martienssen, R.: Molecular biology. All packed up and ready to go, Science, 336(6087), 1391–1392, 2012.
A journal article with 3 authors
Unniraman, S., Fugmann, S. D. and Schatz, D. G.: Immunology. UNGstoppable switching, Science, 305(5687), 1113–1114, 2004.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Stinaff, E. A., Scheibner, M., Bracker, A. S., Ponomarev, I. V., Korenev, V. L., Ware, M. E., Doty, M. F., Reinecke, T. L. and Gammon, D.: Optical signatures of coupled quantum dots, Science, 311(5761), 636–639, 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matignon, R.: Data Mining Using SAS® Enterprise MinerTM, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2007.
An edited book
Dobretsov, N., Kolchanov, N., Rozanov, A. and Zavarzin, G., Eds.: Biosphere Origin and Evolution, Springer US, Boston, MA., 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Möller, B. and Rupp, A.: Faster Multi-exponentiation through Caching: Accelerating (EC)DSA Signature Verification, in Security and Cryptography for Networks: 6th International Conference, SCN 2008, Amalfi, Italy, September 10-12, 2008. Proceedings, edited by R. Ostrovsky, R. D. Prisco, and I. Visconti, pp. 39–56, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2008.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Primate Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: Why Do You Feel Like You’re Falling When You Go To Sleep?, IFLScience, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: 911 Services: Most States Used 911 Funds for Intended Purposes, but FCC Could Improve Its Reporting on States’ Use of Funds, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberts, M.: Use of Stay Interviews as a Retention Tool for Key Talent, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA., 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Jacoby, S.: Keep the Gates of Paradise Open, New York Times, 3rd November, SR9, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blatt, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Blatt, 2001; Jacob and Martienssen, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jacob and Martienssen, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Stinaff et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePrimate Biology
ISSN (print)2363-4707
ISSN (online)2363-4715

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