How to format your references using the Primate Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Primate Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garrett, B. C.: Chemistry. Ions at the air/water interface, Science, 303, 1146–1147, 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baell, J. and Walters, M. A.: Chemistry: Chemical con artists foil drug discovery, Nature, 513, 481–483, 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
Discher, D. E., Mooney, D. J., and Zandstra, P. W.: Growth factors, matrices, and forces combine and control stem cells, Science, 324, 1673–1677, 2009.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Yoshihara, M., Adolfsen, B., Galle, K. T., and Littleton, J. T.: Retrograde signaling by Syt 4 induces presynaptic release and synapse-specific growth, Science, 310, 858–863, 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Korhonen, J., Savolainen, T., and Soininen, J.: Deploying IPv6 in 3GPP Networks, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2013.
An edited book
Snarskii, A. A.: Transport Processes in Macroscopically Disordered Media: From Mean Field Theory to Percolation, edited by: Bezsudnov, I. V., Sevryukov, V. A., Morozovskiy, A., and Malinsky, J., Springer, New York, NY, XIV, 280 p. 100 illus pp., 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Holzer, M. and Kutrib, M.: Cellular Automata and the Quest for Nontrivial Artificial Self-Reproduction, in: Membrane Computing: 11th International Conference, CMC 2010, Jena, Germany, August 24-27, 2010. Revised Selected Papers, edited by: Gheorghe, M., Hinze, T., Păun, G., Rozenberg, G., and Salomaa, A., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 19–36, 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Primate Biology.

Blog post
China Has Been Dramatically Underreporting Coal Consumption:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Highway Contracting: Disadvantaged Business Program Meets Contract Goal, but Refinements Are Needed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCallister, K.: I Didn’t Mean to Show the Dirt, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff, J.: Microsoft Spends Big to Build a Computer Straight Out of Science Fiction, New York Times, 20th November, B4, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Garrett, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Garrett, 2004; Baell and Walters, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baell and Walters, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Yoshihara et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePrimate Biology
ISSN (print)2363-4707
ISSN (online)2363-4715

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