How to format your references using the Primate Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Primate Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Landweber, L. F.: Genetics. Why genomes in pieces?, Science, 318(5849), 405–407, 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thomson, M. and Gunawardena, J.: Unlimited multistability in multisite phosphorylation systems, Nature, 460(7252), 274–277, 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shimojo, S., Kamitani, Y. and Nishida, S.: Afterimage of perceptually filled-in surface, Science, 293(5535), 1677–1680, 2001.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Irwin, D. E., Bensch, S., Irwin, J. H. and Price, T. D.: Speciation by distance in a ring species, Science, 307(5708), 414–416, 2005.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vicat-Blanc, P., Soudan, S., Guillier, R. and Goglin, B.: Computing Networks, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ., 2013.
An edited book
Gao, F.: Channel Estimation for Physical Layer Network Coding Systems, edited by C. Xing and G. Wang, Springer International Publishing, Cham., 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Brown, J. J., Glenn, E. P. and Smith, S. E.: Feasibility of Halophyte Domestication for High-Salinity Agriculture, in Sabkha Ecosystems: Volume IV: Cash Crop Halophyte and Biodiversity Conservation, edited by M. A. Khan, B. Böer, M. Öztürk, T. Z. A. Abdessalaam, M. Clüsener-Godt, and B. Gul, pp. 73–80, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht., 2014.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Primate Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Water-Saving Tap Makes Pretty Patterns, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Telecommunications: Federal Communications Commission Spectrum Management, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fouts, J.: A mental health outreach program for adolescent gang members and at-risk youth: A grant writing project, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA., 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S.: Purge Victims Remembered In Moscow Rite, New York Times, 30th October, A15, 2007.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Landweber, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Landweber, 2007; Thomson and Gunawardena, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thomson and Gunawardena, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Irwin et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePrimate Biology
ISSN (print)2363-4707
ISSN (online)2363-4715

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