How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Sarewitz, “World view: Curing climate backlash,” Nature, vol. 464, no. 7285, p. 28, Mar. 2010.
A journal article with 2 authors
K. Prüfer and M. Meyer, “Anthropology. Comment on ‘Late Pleistocene human skeleton and mtDNA link Paleoamericans and modern Native Americans,’” Science, vol. 347, no. 6224, p. 835, Feb. 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Mollicone, H. D. Eva, and F. Achard, “Ecology: human role in Russian wild fires,” Nature, vol. 440, no. 7083, pp. 436–437, Mar. 2006.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Waldvogel, P. van Gelderen, W. Muellbacher, U. Ziemann, I. Immisch, and M. Hallett, “The relative metabolic demand of inhibition and excitation,” Nature, vol. 406, no. 6799, pp. 995–998, Aug. 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, A Practical Approach to Hazard Identification for Operations and Maintenance Workers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
B. Hu, Z. Yin, and L. Zheng, Eds., Development of China’s Financial Supervision and Regulation. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Sodnik and S. Tomažič, “Spatial Auditory Interfaces,” in Spatial Auditory Human-Computer Interfaces, S. Tomažič, Ed. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 45–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology.

Blog post
J. Fang, “In Quantum Breakthrough, Scientists Get Two Photons To Interact,” IFLScience, 04-Nov-2014. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Second-Year Implementation of the Federal Managers’ Financial Integrity Act in the Department of Education,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, HRD-85-78, Sep. 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. Yoon, “Object Recognition Based on Multi-Agent Spatial Reasoning,” Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Conte, “Scouting Report,” New York Times, p. E5, 17-Mar-2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)2156-342X
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles