How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Webb, “Robots in invertebrate neuroscience,” Nature, vol. 417, no. 6886, pp. 359–363, May 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. T. Bramwell and M. J. Gingras, “Spin ice state in frustrated magnetic pyrochlore materials,” Science, vol. 294, no. 5546, pp. 1495–1501, Nov. 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. Hwang, P. Opresko, and S. Myong, “Single-molecule real-time detection of telomerase extension activity,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6391, Sep. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. K. Gansel et al., “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science, vol. 325, no. 5947, pp. 1513–1515, Sep. 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Beach, The Responsible Conduct of Research. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 1996.
An edited book
S.-W. Lee and S. Z. Li, Eds., Advances in Biometrics: International Conference, ICB 2007, Seoul, Korea, August 27-29, 2007. Proceedings, vol. 4642. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
S.-B. Ho, “On Effective Causal Learning,” in Artificial General Intelligence: 7th International Conference, AGI 2014, Quebec City, QC, Canada, August 1-4, 2014. Proceedings, B. Goertzel, L. Orseau, and J. Snaider, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp. 43–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology.

Blog post
J. Fang, “Outer Envelope of Flu Virus Simulated for the First Time,” IFLScience, 09-Feb-2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Airport Improvement Program: Planned Funding Under Letters of Intent,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-99-33R, Dec. 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. O. Colker, “A grounded theory approach to developing a theory of leadership through a case study of ShoreBank,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, “In Hockey, Game 7 Is Different,” New York Times, p. B13, 27-Apr-2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)2156-342X
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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