How to format your references using the Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice (POP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rubin EM. Genomics of cellulosic biofuels. Nature 2008;454(7206):841–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nacher JC, Akutsu T. Structural controllability of unidirectional bipartite networks. Sci Rep 2013;3:1647.
A journal article with 3 authors
Werner SC, Ody A, Poulet F. The source crater of martian shergottite meteorites. Science 2014;343(6177):1343–6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Facciabene A, Peng X, Hagemann IS, et al. Tumour hypoxia promotes tolerance and angiogenesis via CCL28 and T(reg) cells. Nature 2011;475(7355):226–30.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krabbes G, Fuchs G, Canders W-R, et al. High Temperature Superconductor Bulk Materials. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2006.
An edited book
Anderson RE, editor. World Suffering and Quality of Life. vol. 56. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Seibel MJ, Meier C. Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover – Basic Biochemistry and Variability. in: Adler RA, editor. Osteoporosis: Pathophysiology and Clinical Management. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2010. p. 97–130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice.

Blog post
Andrew E. NASA Plans Mission To Europa. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed on October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Geographic Information Systems: Status at Selected Agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hubbard WL. The perceptions of public school administrators toward technology effectiveness and adequacy in curriculum and instruction in the Golden Triangle Public Schools of Mississippi. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. Another Exclusive Yields No. 1 Album. New York Times 2016:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePrimary Care: Clinics in Office Practice
AbbreviationPrim. Care
ISSN (print)0095-4543
ISSN (online)1558-299X
ScopePharmacology (medical)

Other styles