How to format your references using the Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice (POP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
You Z. Materials design. Folding structures out of flat materials. Science 2014;345(6197):623–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoveyda AH, Zhugralin AR. The remarkable metal-catalysed olefin metathesis reaction. Nature 2007;450(7167):243–51.
A journal article with 3 authors
Russell DG, Barry CE 3rd, Flynn JL. Tuberculosis: what we don’t know can, and does, hurt us. Science 2010;328(5980):852–6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sayrin C, Dotsenko I, Zhou X, et al. Real-time quantum feedback prepares and stabilizes photon number states. Nature 2011;477(7362):73–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taylor R. Handbook of Retinal Screening in Diabetes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Omelchenko A, Pivovarov AA, Swindall WJ, editors. Modern Tools and Methods of Water Treatment for Improving Living Standards: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Modern Tools and Methods of Water Treatment for Improving Living Standards Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine 19–22 November 2003. vol. 48. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Das A, Roy J, Chakrabarti S. The Shades of Suffering. in: Roy J, Chakraborti S, editors. Socio-Economic Analysis of Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in West Bengal. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p. 13–7.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice.

Blog post
Davis J. New Species Of Pliosaur Discovered In Russia. IFLScience. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Contracts: Army Needs to Correct Budget Disclosure Deficiencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shen H. Organization -employee relationships model: A two -sided story. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isbister M. The Joy of Making Things. New York Times 2011:BU10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePrimary Care: Clinics in Office Practice
AbbreviationPrim. Care
ISSN (print)0095-4543
ISSN (online)1558-299X
ScopePharmacology (medical)

Other styles