How to format your references using the Strategic Management Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Strategic Management Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yang H. 2014. China must continue the momentum of green law. Nature 509(7502): 535.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scanlon JD, Lee MS. 2000. The Pleistocene serpent Wonambi and the early evolution of snakes. Nature 403(6768): 416–420.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gess RW, Coates MI, Rubidge BS. 2006. A lamprey from the Devonian period of South Africa. Nature 443(7114): 981–984.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Zhang M et al. 2018. Uncovering the essential genes of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum by saturation mutagenesis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 360(6388).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Radoine H. 2017. Architecture in Context. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK.
An edited book
O’Grady G, Yew EHJ, Goh KPL, Schmidt HG (eds). 2012. One-Day, One-Problem: An Approach to Problem-based Learning. Springer: Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Solymár K, Mádai F, Papanastassiou D. 2016. Effect of Bauxite Microstructure on Beneficiation and Processing. In Essential Readings in Light Metals: Volume 1 Alumina and Bauxite, TRAVAUX de l’ICSOBA, No. 13, Donaldson D, Raahauge BE (eds). Springer International Publishing: Cham: 37–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Strategic Management Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015, August 19. Record-Breaking Superconductor Works At Highest Temperature Yet. IFLScience. IFLScience. Available at: [30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Arts Funding: Public Funding Profiles of the NEA States and Cities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sahebjame M. 2012. Marriage: An authentic Iranian experience of the modern. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ryerson J. 2017, March 6. University Presses. New York Times : BR31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yang, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Scanlon and Lee, 2000; Yang, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scanlon and Lee, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Gess, Coates, and Rubidge, 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleStrategic Management Journal
AbbreviationStrategic Manage. J.
ISSN (print)0143-2095
ISSN (online)1097-0266
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Strategy and Management

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