How to format your references using the Strategic Management Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Strategic Management Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Frenking G. 2000. Another noble gas conquered. Nature 406(6798): 836–837.
A journal article with 2 authors
Guimerà R, Nunes Amaral LA. 2005. Functional cartography of complex metabolic networks. Nature 433(7028): 895–900.
A journal article with 3 authors
Frey S, Richter RP, Görlich D. 2006. FG-rich repeats of nuclear pore proteins form a three-dimensional meshwork with hydrogel-like properties. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314(5800): 815–817.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Fontaine S et al. 2007. Stability of organic carbon in deep soil layers controlled by fresh carbon supply. Nature 450(7167): 277–280.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Bagotsky V, M. Skundin A, M. Volfkovich Y. 2014. Electrochemical Power Sources. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Zhou J, Yung M (eds). 2010. Applied Cryptography and Network Security: 8th International Conference, ACNS 2010, Beijing, China, June 22-25, 2010. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 6123.
A chapter in an edited book
Aust HP. 2009. The Normative Environment for Peace – On the Contribution of the ILC’s Articles on State Responsibility. In Peace through International Law: The Role of the International Law Commission. A Colloquium at the Occasion of its Sixtieth Anniversary, Beiträge zum ausländischen öffentlichen Recht und Völkerrecht, Nolte G (ed). Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg: 13–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Strategic Management Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015, May 6. Tree Kangaroos: Real Life Teddy Bears. IFLScience. IFLScience. Available at: [30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Information Technology: Census Bureau Needs to Improve Its Risk Management of Decennial Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mace JY. 2014. Rupturing the ‘reality’ of reality TV: Contemporary video artists examining the discursive effects of the reality TV phenomenon. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Harris G, Shear MD, Nixon R. 2017, June 29. Court Opinion Lets U.S. Start Ban on Travel. New York Times : A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Frenking, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Frenking, 2000; Guimerà and Nunes Amaral, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Guimerà and Nunes Amaral, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Frey, Richter, and Görlich, 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Fontaine et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleStrategic Management Journal
AbbreviationStrategic Manage. J.
ISSN (print)0143-2095
ISSN (online)1097-0266
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Strategy and Management

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