How to format your references using the Strategic Management Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Strategic Management Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stringer C. 2012. Palaeontology: The 100-year mystery of Piltdown Man. Nature 492(7428): 177–179.
A journal article with 2 authors
Giovannoni SJ, Vergin KL. 2012. Seasonality in ocean microbial communities. Science (New York, N.Y.) 335(6069): 671–676.
A journal article with 3 authors
Otto A, White JD, Simoneit BRT. 2002. Natural product terpenoids in Eocene and Miocene conifer fossils. Science (New York, N.Y.) 297(5586): 1543–1545.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Luo J, Su F, Chen D, Shiloh A, Gu W. 2000. Deacetylation of p53 modulates its effect on cell growth and apoptosis. Nature 408(6810): 377–381.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertau M, Müller A, Fröhlich P, Katzberg M. 2013. Industrielle Anorganische Chemie. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Hubbert S. 2015. Spherical Radial Basis Functions, Theory and Applications. SpringerBriefs in Mathematics, Lê Gia QT, Morton TM (eds). Springer International Publishing: Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Lopes N, Ribeiro B. 2015. Support Vector Machines (SVMs). In Machine Learning for Adaptive Many-Core Machines - A Practical Approach, Studies in Big Data, Ribeiro B (ed). Springer International Publishing: Cham: 85–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Strategic Management Journal.

Blog post
Andrew D. 2016, October 1. Surprising Ways That Caffeine Affects Your Body And Brain. IFLScience. IFLScience. Available at: [30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Solid Rocket Motors: Loss of Oxidizer Production Necessitates Emergency Allocation Procedures. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Forshey TM. 2013. Neural basis of the neurological diagnostic power of vibrotactile sensory testing. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. 2010, January 26. Ryan’s Gospel of Green Softens Sting of Defeat. New York Times : B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stringer, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Giovannoni and Vergin, 2012; Stringer, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Giovannoni and Vergin, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Otto, White, and Simoneit, 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Luo et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleStrategic Management Journal
AbbreviationStrategic Manage. J.
ISSN (print)0143-2095
ISSN (online)1097-0266
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Strategy and Management

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