How to format your references using the Primary Care Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Primary Care Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.E. Bloom, 7 billion and counting, Science. 333 (2011) 562–569.
A journal article with 2 authors
T.J. Martin, G.R. Mundy, Bone metastasis: can osteoclasts be excluded?, Nature. 445 (2007) E19; discussion E19-20.
A journal article with 3 authors
E.B. Watson, J.B. Thomas, D.J. Cherniak, 40Ar retention in the terrestrial planets, Nature. 449 (2007) 299–304.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.F. Sherson, H. Krauter, R.K. Olsson, B. Julsgaard, K. Hammerer, I. Cirac, E.S. Polzik, Quantum teleportation between light and matter, Nature. 443 (2006) 557–560.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B.R. Chapman, E.G. Bolen, Ecology of North America, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
K. Daniilidis, P. Maragos, N. Paragios, eds., Computer Vision – ECCV 2010: 11th European Conference on Computer Vision, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, September 5-11, 2010, Proceedings, Part II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Yoon, X. Huang, R. Solasi, Experimental Validation of A Constitutive Model for Ionomer Membrane in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), in: T. Proulx (Ed.), Experimental Mechanics on Emerging Energy Systems and Materials, Volume 5: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 33–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Primary Care Diabetes.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, First “Wind Nebula” Seen Around a Magnetar, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Higher Education: Trustee Arrangements Serve Useful Purpose in Student Loan Market, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.A. Ryan, Computer-Based Versus Paper-Pencil Modes of Administration United States Government End of Course Exams: Student Cumulative Grade Point Averages as Predictors of Success, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, For the Yankees, A Chill in the Air, New York Times. (2010) SP6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePrimary Care Diabetes
AbbreviationPrim. Care Diabetes
ISSN (print)1751-9918
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine
Nutrition and Dietetics

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