How to format your references using the Primary Care Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Primary Care Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T.J. Ley, Retrospective: Stanley Joel Korsmeyer (1950-2005), Science. 308 (2005) 803–804.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.I. Podgornaia, M.T. Laub, Protein evolution. Pervasive degeneracy and epistasis in a protein-protein interface, Science. 347 (2015) 673–677.
A journal article with 3 authors
E.D. Buhr, S.-H. Yoo, J.S. Takahashi, Temperature as a universal resetting cue for mammalian circadian oscillators, Science. 330 (2010) 379–385.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Xu, Q. Gao, Y. Zhang, Y. Tan, W. Tian, L. Zhu, L. Jiang, Preparing two-dimensional microporous carbon from Pistachio nutshell with high areal capacitance as supercapacitor materials, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5545.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Yavaş, Applied English Phonology, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
F.S. Fogliatto, G.J.C. da Silveira, eds., Mass Customization: Engineering and Managing Global Operations, Springer, London, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Goetze, Bringing Claude Lévi-Strauss and Pierre Bourdieu Together for a Post-structuralist Methodology to Analyse Myths, in: B. Bliesemann de Guevara (Ed.), Myth and Narrative in International Politics: Interpretive Approaches to the Study of IR, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016: pp. 87–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Primary Care Diabetes.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Rare Species Of Deep-Diving Whale Discovered, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Bureau of Indian Affairs: Use of Highway Trust Fund Resources, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
F.A. Aikens, An Examination of Ethical Behavior, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intent in Southern Ohio QSR Operations, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Chira, L. Blaise, France’s First Lady, a Confidante and Coach, May Reshape an Evolving Role, New York Times. (2017) A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePrimary Care Diabetes
AbbreviationPrim. Care Diabetes
ISSN (print)1751-9918
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine
Nutrition and Dietetics

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