How to format your references using the Primary Care Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Primary Care Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S.J.J. Brouns, Molecular biology. A Swiss army knife of immunity, Science. 337 (2012) 808–809.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.A. Silver, R.T. Kanichay, Neuroscience. Refreshing connections, Science. 320 (2008) 183–184.
A journal article with 3 authors
P.J. Baker, S. Harris, C.C. Webbon, Effect of British hunting ban on fox numbers, Nature. 419 (2002) 34.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P.-H. Blard, J. Lavé, R. Pik, P. Wagnon, D. Bourlès, Persistence of full glacial conditions in the central Pacific until 15,000 years ago, Nature. 449 (2007) 591–594.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Kwok, Organic Matter in the Universe, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2011.
An edited book
L. Iliadis, I. Maglogiannis, H. Papadopoulos, eds., Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations: 10th IFIP WG 12.5 International Conference, AIAI 2014, Rhodes, Greece, September 19-21, 2014. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Dredge, Tourism and Governance, in: G. Moscardo, P. Benckendorff (Eds.), Education for Sustainability in Tourism: A Handbook of Processes, Resources, and Strategies, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015: pp. 75–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Primary Care Diabetes.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Dunkin’ Donuts Ditches Titanium Dioxide – But Is It Actually Harmful?, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA Issues, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.D. Allen, Putting out fires: How communication professionals understand and practice conflict resolution, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Shpigel, A Giants Rookie Casts a Thoughtful Eye on the World, New York Times. (2016) SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePrimary Care Diabetes
AbbreviationPrim. Care Diabetes
ISSN (print)1751-9918
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine
Nutrition and Dietetics

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