How to format your references using the Boreal Environment Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Boreal Environment Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schlessinger J. 2003. Signal transduction. Autoinhibition control. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300: 750–752.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jing Z. & Wu L. 2014. Intensified diapycnal mixing in the midlatitude western boundary currents. Scientific reports 4: 7412.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bose H.S., Lingappa V.R. & Miller W.L. 2002. Rapid regulation of steroidogenesis by mitochondrial protein import. Nature 417: 87–91.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Mogi I., Morimoto R., Aogaki R. & Watanabe K. 2013. Surface chirality induced by rotational electrodeposition in magnetic fields. Scientific reports 3: 2574.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Phillips J.J., Trotter W.D. & Phillips P.P. 2015. Maximizing the Value of Consulting. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Fichera A. & Krane M.K. (eds.). 2015. Crohn’s Disease: Basic Principles. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Yang J., Ma X., Hou C. & Yao Z. 2008. A Static Multiprocessor Scheduling Algorithm for Arbitrary Directed Task Graphs in Uncertain Environments. In: Bourgeois A.G. & Zheng S.Q. (eds.), Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing: 8th International Conference, ICA3PP 2008, Cyprus, June 9-11, 2008 Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 18–29.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Boreal Environment Research.

Blog post
Davis J. 2015. Trans Fats Linked To Greater Risk Of Death And Heart Disease. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Railroad Safety: Engineer Work Shift Length and Schedule Variability. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilday D. 2014. Soulmaking within the destructive side of God seeing through monotheism’s holy warrior 9/11 to prehistory.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh M.W. 2011. Illinois Plan For Pensions Questioned. New York Times: B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schlessinger 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Schlessinger 2003; Jing and Wu 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jing and Wu 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Mogi et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBoreal Environment Research
ISSN (print)1239-6095
ISSN (online)1797-2469

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