How to format your references using the Boreal Environment Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Boreal Environment Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hopkins P.F. 2014. Astrophysics: stars fight back. Nature 516: 44–45.
A journal article with 2 authors
Witt C.C. & Brumfield R.T. 2004. Comment on ‘Molecular phylogenies link rates of evolution and speciation’ (I). Science (New York, N.Y.) 303: 173; author reply 173.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sobolevsky A.I., Rosconi M.P. & Gouaux E. 2009. X-ray structure, symmetry and mechanism of an AMPA-subtype glutamate receptor. Nature 462: 745–756.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
McNew J.A., Parlati F., Fukuda R., Johnston R.J., Paz K., Paumet F., Söllner T.H. & Rothman J.E. 2000. Compartmental specificity of cellular membrane fusion encoded in SNARE proteins. Nature 407: 153–159.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guochao Q., Shuyu T., Min Z. & Chun J. 2014. The Environment and Landscape in Motorway Design. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Bacha S. 2014. Power Electronic Converters Modeling and Control: with Case Studies Munteanu I. & Bratcu A.I. (eds.). Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Dimov I., Georgieva R. & Todorov V. 2015. Balancing of Systematic and Stochastic Errors in Monte Carlo Algorithms for Integral Equations. In: Dimov I., Fidanova S. & Lirkov I. (eds.), Numerical Methods and Applications: 8th International Conference, NMA 2014, Borovets, Bulgaria, August 20-24, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 44–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Boreal Environment Research.

Blog post
Andrews R. 2017. What Would Happen If All The Water In The World Suddenly Disappeared? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Emergency Communications: National Communications System Provides Programs for Priority Calling, but Planning for New Initiatives and Performance Measurement Could be Strengthened. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barrios G. 2012. Outreach program to address the unmet needs of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans: A grant proposal.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. 2017. Defending Champion Kerber Is Ousted. New York Times: B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hopkins 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Witt and Brumfield 2004; Hopkins 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Witt and Brumfield 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (McNew et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleBoreal Environment Research
ISSN (print)1239-6095
ISSN (online)1797-2469

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