How to format your references using the Boreal Environment Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Boreal Environment Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Silverman E.K. 2012. Perspective: How can genetics help? Nature 489: S7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matsumoto M. & Hikosaka O. 2009. Two types of dopamine neuron distinctly convey positive and negative motivational signals. Nature 459: 837–841.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shim J.H., Haule K. & Kotliar G. 2007. Modeling the localized-to-itinerant electronic transition in the heavy fermion system CeIrIn5. Science (New York, N.Y.) 318: 1615–1617.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Nakazaki T., Okumoto Y., Horibata A., Yamahira S., Teraishi M., Nishida H., Inoue H. & Tanisaka T. 2003. Mobilization of a transposon in the rice genome. Nature 421: 170–172.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kraehmer H. & Baur P. 2013. Weed Anatomy. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Carl S. 2007. Nonsmooth Variational Problems and Their Inequalities: Comparison Principles and Applications Khoi V.L. & Motreanu D. (eds.). Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Grange L.L. 2011. The Philosophy of Ubuntu and Education in South Africa. In: Veugelers W. (ed.), Education and Humanism: Linking Autonomy and Humanity, SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 67–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Boreal Environment Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2016. Why Do Only Some People Get ‘Skin Orgasms’ From Listening To Music? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Aviation Safety: FAA Has Not Fully Implemented Weather-Related Recommendations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Witowski L.L. 2008. The relationship between instructional delivery methods and student learning preferences: What contributes to student satisfaction in an online learning environment?

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wingfield N. & Couturier K. 2017. Detailing Amazon’s Custom-Clothing Patent. New York Times: B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Silverman 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Matsumoto and Hikosaka 2009; Silverman 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Matsumoto and Hikosaka 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakazaki et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleBoreal Environment Research
ISSN (print)1239-6095
ISSN (online)1797-2469

Other styles