How to format your references using the Boreal Environment Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Boreal Environment Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Budd G.E. 2002. A palaeontological solution to the arthropod head problem. Nature 417: 271–275.
A journal article with 2 authors
Promislow D.E.L. & Kaeberlein M. 2014. Development. Chemical warfare in the battle of the sexes. Science (New York, N.Y.) 343: 491–492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li G.-W., Oh E. & Weissman J.S. 2012. The anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence drives translational pausing and codon choice in bacteria. Nature 484: 538–541.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Lu X.L., Lu Q.H., Li Y. & Lu L. 2013. Gradient confinement induced uniform tensile ductility in metallic glass. Scientific reports 3: 3319.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Balmori D. 2014. Drawing and Reinventing Landscape. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Weible C.M., Heikkila T., Ingold K. & Fischer M. (eds.). 2016. Policy Debates on Hydraulic Fracturing: Comparing Coalition Politics in North America and Europe. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Bergh C. de, Schaller E.L., Brown M.E., Brunetto R., Cruikshank D.P. & Schmitt B. 2013. The Ices on Transneptunian Objects and Centaurs. In: Gudipati M.S. & Castillo-Rogez J. (eds.), The Science of Solar System Ices, Springer, New York, NY, pp. 107–146.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Boreal Environment Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Graphene Could Double Electricity Generated From Solar. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Hispanic Dropouts and Federal Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stuart K. 2013. The Relationship Between Weather and Lunar Changes on Student Achievement and Measures School Districts Utilize to Combat Potential Impact.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Waldstein D. & Rothenberg B. 2016. They Built a Roof. It Got Loud. Now What? New York Times: D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Budd 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Budd 2002; Promislow and Kaeberlein 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Promislow and Kaeberlein 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Lu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleBoreal Environment Research
ISSN (print)1239-6095
ISSN (online)1797-2469

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