How to format your references using the Prehospital Emergency Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Prehospital Emergency Care (PEC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gaffan D: Neuroscience. Widespread cortical networks underlie memory and attention. Science. 2005;September 30;309(5744):2172–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schneider DS, Chambers MC: Microbiology. Rogue insect immunity. Science. 2008;November 21;322(5905):1199–200.
A journal article with 3 authors
Williams-Guillén K, Perfecto I, Vandermeer J: Bats limit insects in a neotropical agroforestry system. Science. 2008;April 4;320(5872):70.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mol CD, Izumi T, Mitra S, et al.: DNA-bound structures and mutants reveal abasic DNA binding by APE1 and DNA repair coordination [corrected]. Nature. 2000;January 27;403(6768):451–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Turner JE, Downing DJ, Bogard JS: Statistical Methods in Radiation Physics. Weinheim, Germany, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2012.
An edited book
Nejdl W, Kay J, Pu P, et al.: Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-Based Systems: 5th International Conference, AH 2008, Hannover, Germany, July 29 - August 1, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2008 2008;5149.
A chapter in an edited book
Coats B, Acharya S: Achieving Electronic Health Record Access from the Cloud., Human-Computer Interaction. Applications and Services: 15th International Conference, HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part II. Edited by Kurosu M. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2013, pp 26–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Prehospital Emergency Care.

Blog post
Andrew E: Living With Complexity: Evolution, Ecology, Viruses And Climate Change.IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: [Comments on NASA Employee’s Proposed Work Schedule]. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Deutsch D: Increased mental health services for the homeless.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
TERRI LYNN KELLY; As told to Amy Zipkin: Making the Suit Fit. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePrehospital Emergency Care
AbbreviationPrehosp. Emerg. Care
ISSN (print)1090-3127
ISSN (online)1545-0066
ScopeEmergency Medicine

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