How to format your references using the Prehospital Emergency Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Prehospital Emergency Care (PEC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marzari F: Planetary science. Puzzling Neptune Trojans. Science. 2006;July 28;313(5786):451–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Outeiro TF, Lindquist S: Yeast cells provide insight into alpha-synuclein biology and pathobiology. Science. 2003;December 5;302(5651):1772–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kurin-Csörgei K, Epstein IR, Orbán M: Systematic design of chemical oscillators using complexation and precipitation equilibria. Nature. 2005;January 13;433(7022):139–42.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gachet Y, Tournier S, Millar JB, et al.: A MAP kinase-dependent actin checkpoint ensures proper spindle orientation in fission yeast. Nature. 2001;July 19;412(6844):352–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Remy J-G, Letamendia C: LTE Standards. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.
An edited book
Lawrence T, Hagemann T: Tumour-Associated Macrophages. New York, NY, Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Cagatay S, Kıymaz T, Özeş R: To What Extent Are Rural Development Policies Compatible with Achieving Sustainable Agriculture in Turkey?, Sustainable Agricultural Development: Challenges and Approaches in Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries. Edited by Petit M, Montaigne E, El Hadad-Gauthier F, et al. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp 103–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Prehospital Emergency Care.

Blog post
Hamilton K: 52 Of The Most Common Myths and Misconceptions Debunked In One Infographic.IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Examination of Possible “Buy-In” by Garrett AiResearch. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gambini F: Leadership capacity for succession and sustainability in a family-owned private school.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M: A Raid on Men’s Closets. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePrehospital Emergency Care
AbbreviationPrehosp. Emerg. Care
ISSN (print)1090-3127
ISSN (online)1545-0066
ScopeEmergency Medicine

Other styles