How to format your references using the Prehospital Emergency Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Prehospital Emergency Care (PEC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sparks S: Use the calm between the storms. Nature. 2007;November 15;450(7168):354.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fox EJ, Loeb LA: Cancer: One cell at a time. Nature. 2014;August 14;512(7513):143–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Seibel BA, Robison BH, Haddock SHD: Post-spawning egg care by a squid. Nature. 2005;December 15;438(7070):929.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Achermann M, Petruska MA, Kos S, et al.: Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well. Nature. 2004;June 10;429(6992):642–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety: Guidelines for Managing Process Safety Risks During Organizational Change. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
Barnaghi P, Moessner K, Presser M, et al.: Smart Sensing and Context: 4th European Conference, EuroSSC 2009, Guildford, UK, September 16-18, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2009 2009;5741.
A chapter in an edited book
Stein A, Georgiadis N: Spatial Statistics to Quantify Patterns of Herd Dispersion in a Savanna Herbivore Community., Resource Ecology: Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Foraging. Edited by Prins HHT, Langevelde FV. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2008, pp 33–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Prehospital Emergency Care.

Blog post
Hale T: Here’s What Happened When A Teenager Didn’t Sleep For Eleven Days.IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: FTS 2000: Mandatory Use. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Avila R: Support and Resources for Homeless Families: A Grant Proposal.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mahler J, Confessore N: Puerto Rico’s Pricey Struggle. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePrehospital Emergency Care
AbbreviationPrehosp. Emerg. Care
ISSN (print)1090-3127
ISSN (online)1545-0066
ScopeEmergency Medicine

Other styles