How to format your references using the Prehospital Emergency Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Prehospital Emergency Care (PEC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Connor CE: Neuroscience. Reconstructing a 3D world. Science. 2002;October 11;298(5592):376–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li L, Ye K: Crystal structure of an H/ACA box ribonucleoprotein particle. Nature. 2006;September 21;443(7109):302–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Joseph AC, Joseph SE, Chen G: Cross-border portfolio investment networks and indicators for financial crises. Sci Rep. 2014;February 10;4:3991.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Miller MJ, Wei SH, Parker I, et al.: Two-photon imaging of lymphocyte motility and antigen response in intact lymph node. Science. 2002;June 7;296(5574):1869–73.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dinçer İ, Zamfirescu C: Drying Phenomena. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
Di Rocco C, Turgut M, Jallo G, et al.: Complications of CSF Shunting in Hydrocephalus: Prevention, Identification, and Management. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Okuno E, Fratin L: Rotations., Biomechanics of the Human Body. Edited by Fratin L. New York, NY, Springer, 2014, pp 59–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Prehospital Emergency Care.

Blog post
Fang J: Rock Gobies Only Need a Minute to Change Color.IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration: Powered Industrial Truck Operator Training. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moro JM: School Improvement Grants at Work: A Study of Urban, Public New England Schools.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW: Treasury Official Urges Congress to Act Quickly on Puerto Rico. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePrehospital Emergency Care
AbbreviationPrehosp. Emerg. Care
ISSN (print)1090-3127
ISSN (online)1545-0066
ScopeEmergency Medicine

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