How to format your references using the Prehospital Emergency Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Prehospital Emergency Care (PEC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lellouch E: Planetary science. Titan’s zoo of clouds. Science. 2006;January 13;311(5758):186–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Srinivasan K, Painter O: Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of a strongly coupled microdisk-quantum dot system. Nature. 2007;December 6;450(7171):862–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kayukawa T, Tateishi K, Shinoda T: Establishment of a versatile cell line for juvenile hormone signaling analysis in Tribolium castaneum. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1570.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Behrenfeld MJ, Worthington K, Sherrell RM, et al.: Controls on tropical Pacific Ocean productivity revealed through nutrient stress diagnostics. Nature. 2006;August 31;442(7106):1025–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kondoz AM: Digital Speech. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
Uustalu T: Mathematics of Program Construction: 8th International Conference, MPC 2006, Kuressaare, Estonia, July 3-5, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2006 2006;4014.
A chapter in an edited book
Murty MN, Panda M: Current Status of Environmental and Economic Accounting: Review of Some Countries Experiences and Way Forward for India., Nature, Economy and Society: Understanding the Linkages. Edited by Ghosh N, Mukhopadhyay P, Shah A, et al. New Delhi, Springer India, 2016, pp 51–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Prehospital Emergency Care.

Blog post
Andrew E: Scientists Turn to YouTube to Understand Chelyabinsk Asteroid Impact.IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airline Competition: Effects of Airline Market Concentration and Barriers to Entry on Airfares. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Messian NM: The Spiral of Time: A Path to the Soul—Jewish Mystical and Depth Psychological Perspectives.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L: Justices Overturn $79.5 Million in Punitive Damages Against Philip Morris. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePrehospital Emergency Care
AbbreviationPrehosp. Emerg. Care
ISSN (print)1090-3127
ISSN (online)1545-0066
ScopeEmergency Medicine

Other styles