How to format your references using the Digital Experiences in Mathematics Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Experiences in Mathematics Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goulson, D. (2014). Ecology: Pesticides linked to bird declines. Nature, 511(7509), 295–296.
A journal article with 2 authors
Khosla, C., & Tang, Y. (2005). Chemistry. A new route to designer antibiotics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5720), 367–368.
A journal article with 3 authors
Harris, G. C., Wimmer, M., & Aston-Jones, G. (2005). A role for lateral hypothalamic orexin neurons in reward seeking. Nature, 437(7058), 556–559.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Loh, W., Yegnanarayanan, S., Ram, R. J., & Juodawlkis, P. W. (2014). A nonlinear optoelectronic filter for electronic signal processing. Scientific reports, 4, 3613.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Troffaes, M. C. M., & Cooman, G. de. (2014). Lower Previsions: Troffaes/Lower Previsions. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Barjis, J., Pergl, R., & Babkin, E. (Eds.). (2015). Enterprise and Organizational Modeling and Simulation: 11th International Workshop, EOMAS 2015, Held at CAiSE 2015, Stockholm, Sweden, June 8-9, 2015, Selected Papers (Vol. 231). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Castillo, E., & Fernández-Canteli, A. (2009). Crack Growth Models. In A. Fernández-Canteli (Ed.), A Unified Statistical Methodology for Modeling Fatigue Damage (pp. 129–157). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Experiences in Mathematics Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, November 29). Amazing Photograph Shows Birth and Death of Star. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Enterprise Architecture: Leadership Remains Key to Establishing and Leveraging Architectures for Organizational Transformation (No. GAO-06-831). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green, J. T. (2010). The relationship between technology support and extent of technology integration into college-level foreign language curricula (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bosman, J., Harmon, A., Hauser, C., Bidgood, J., & Astor, M. (2017, October 2). Friends and Relatives Share Memories About the Las Vegas Shooting Victims. New York Times, p. A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goulson 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Goulson 2014; Khosla and Tang 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Khosla and Tang 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Loh et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Experiences in Mathematics Education
AbbreviationDigit. Exp. Math. Educ.
ISSN (print)2199-3246
ISSN (online)2199-3254

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