How to format your references using the Digital Experiences in Mathematics Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Digital Experiences in Mathematics Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rietbrock, A. (2007). Geophysics. Listening to the crackle of subducting oceanic plates. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5830), 1439–1440.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller, M. W., & Williams, E. S. (2003). Prion disease: horizontal prion transmission in mule deer. Nature, 425(6953), 35–36.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deal, R. B., Henikoff, J. G., & Henikoff, S. (2010). Genome-wide kinetics of nucleosome turnover determined by metabolic labeling of histones. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5982), 1161–1164.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hashimoto, A., Suenaga, K., Gloter, A., Urita, K., & Iijima, S. (2004). Direct evidence for atomic defects in graphene layers. Nature, 430(7002), 870–873.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thiselton, A. C. (2010). 1 & 2 Thessalonians: Through the Centuries. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Tomashefski, J. F., Cagle, P. T., Farver, C. F., & Fraire, A. E. (Eds.). (2008). Dail and Hammar’s Pulmonary Pathology: Volume I: Nonneoplastic Lung Disease (Third Edition.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chan, A. H. S., & Chan, K. W. L. (2008). Proposal of New Paradigm for Hand and Foot Controls in the Context of Spatial Compatibility Effect. In A. H. S. Chan & S.-I. Ao (Eds.), Advances in Industrial Engineering and Operations Research (pp. 57–65). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Digital Experiences in Mathematics Education.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2017, March 23). This Platypus Scratching Itself Is The Cutest Thing You’ll See All Day. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Air Traffic Control: System Management Capabilities Improved, but More Can Be Done to Institutionalize Improvements (No. GAO-04-901). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grijalva, J. A. (2010). Exploring cultural finance: A phenomenological approach to comparative cultural perceptions of money in Mexico (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, August 19). Exit Hammet, Enter Holmes. New York Times, p. E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rietbrock 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Miller and Williams 2003; Rietbrock 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Miller and Williams 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Hashimoto et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleDigital Experiences in Mathematics Education
AbbreviationDigit. Exp. Math. Educ.
ISSN (print)2199-3246
ISSN (online)2199-3254

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