How to format your references using the Precision Agriculture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Precision Agriculture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dise, N. B. (2009). Environmental science. Peatland response to global change. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5954), 810–811.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hillaire-Marcel, C., & de Vernal, A. (2008). Comment on “Mixed-layer deepening during Heinrich events: a multi-planktonic foraminiferal delta18O approach.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5880), 1161; author reply 1161.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pesaran, B., Nelson, M. J., & Andersen, R. A. (2008). Free choice activates a decision circuit between frontal and parietal cortex. Nature, 453(7193), 406–409.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pertz, O., Hodgson, L., Klemke, R. L., & Hahn, K. M. (2006). Spatiotemporal dynamics of RhoA activity in migrating cells. Nature, 440(7087), 1069–1072.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lamattina, J. L. (2012). Devalued and Distrusted. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zalesny, R., Papadopoulos, M. G., Mezey, P. G., & Leszczynski, J. (Eds.). (2011). Linear-Scaling Techniques in Computational Chemistry and Physics: Methods and Applications (Vol. 13). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Molenaar, E. J. (2014). Status and Reform of International Arctic Fisheries Law. In E. Tedsen, S. Cavalieri, & R. A. Kraemer (Eds.), Arctic Marine Governance: Opportunities for Transatlantic Cooperation (pp. 103–125). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Precision Agriculture.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, March 12). Hydrothermal Activity Discovered On Enceladus. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Modernization Program (No. RCED-99-25). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams, C. (2017). Tattooing and the Generalized Other (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M. J. (2017, August 7). Looking to Bulk Up Sprint, SoftBank Is Casting an Eye on Charter. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dise 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Dise 2009; Hillaire-Marcel and de Vernal 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hillaire-Marcel and de Vernal 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Pertz et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePrecision Agriculture
AbbreviationPrecis. Agric.
ISSN (print)1385-2256
ISSN (online)1573-1618
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

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