How to format your references using the Precision Agriculture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Precision Agriculture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mackenzie, D. (2000). MATHEMATICS: Taking the Measure of the Wildest Dance on Earth. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5498), 1883–1884.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yu, L., & Lenardo, M. J. (2003). Immunology. The paracaspase connection. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5650), 1515–1516.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kraft, N. J. B., Valencia, R., & Ackerly, D. D. (2008). Functional traits and niche-based tree community assembly in an Amazonian forest. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5901), 580–582.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hellal, F., Hurtado, A., Ruschel, J., Flynn, K. C., Laskowski, C. J., Umlauf, M., et al. (2011). Microtubule stabilization reduces scarring and causes axon regeneration after spinal cord injury. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6019), 928–931.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Engle, C. R., Quagrainie, K. K., & Dey, M. M. (2016). Seafood and Aquaculture Marketing Handbook. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Pavlov, A. (2008). CMOS SRAM Circuit Design and Parametric Test in Nano-Scaled Technologies: Process-Aware SRAM Design and Test. (M. Sachdev, Ed.) (Vol. 40). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Sato, S., & Kise, K. (2015). ArchHDL: A Novel Hardware RTL Design Environment in C++. In K. Sano, D. Soudris, M. Hübner, & P. C. Diniz (Eds.), Applied Reconfigurable Computing: 11th International Symposium, ARC 2015, Bochum, Germany, April 13-17, 2015, Proceedings (pp. 53–64). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Precision Agriculture.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, September 13). Fossil Evidence Reveals That Cancer In Humans Goes Back 1.7 Million Years. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Curriculum Case Studies Are of Questionable Quality but Helped Precollege Curriculum Activities (No. HRD-77-46). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams-Newball, T. I. (2014). Domain, Community and Practice: An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship Between Communities of Practice and Professional Identity Among Veterinarians (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B., Southall, A., & Baker, A. L. (2016, August 4). Social Circles Collide on the Dance Floor. Then, a Deadly Brawl. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mackenzie 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Mackenzie 2000; Yu and Lenardo 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yu and Lenardo 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Hellal et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titlePrecision Agriculture
AbbreviationPrecis. Agric.
ISSN (print)1385-2256
ISSN (online)1573-1618
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

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