How to format your references using the Precision Agriculture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Precision Agriculture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Autor, D. H. (2014). Skills, education, and the rise of earnings inequality among the “other 99 percent.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6186), 843–851.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bartek, J., & Lukas, J. (2006). Cell biology. The stress of finding NEMO. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5764), 1110–1111.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kumar, D., Barman, S., & Barman, A. (2014). Magnetic vortex based transistor operations. Scientific reports, 4, 4108.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nilsson, C., Reidy, C. A., Dynesius, M., & Revenga, C. (2005). Fragmentation and flow regulation of the world’s large river systems. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5720), 405–408.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bard, J., & Kovarik, V. J., Jr. (2007). Software Defined Radio. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sahin, A. (Ed.). (2015). A Practice-based Model of STEM Teaching: STEM Students on the Stage (SOS)TM. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Maciocco, G., & Tagliagambe, S. (2009). What We Want or the Kitsch City and the City of Conformism. In S. Tagliagambe (Ed.), People and Space: New Forms of Interaction in the City Project (pp. 31–39). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Precision Agriculture.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, May 20). Physicists Use Einstein’s ‘Spooky’ Entanglement To Invent Super-Sensitive Gravitational Wave Detector. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Computer Operations: FAA Needs to Implement an Effective Capacity Management Program (No. IMTEC-92-2). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sanchez, M. (2012). For imagination and love – The permanence of the Mexican father who fathers at a distance (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017, May 26). Hamilton Minus Music. New York Times, p. BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Autor 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Autor 2014; Bartek and Lukas 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bartek and Lukas 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Nilsson et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePrecision Agriculture
AbbreviationPrecis. Agric.
ISSN (print)1385-2256
ISSN (online)1573-1618
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

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