How to format your references using the Precision Agriculture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Precision Agriculture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Peitgen, H.-O. (2010). Retrospective. Benoît B. Mandelbrot (1924-2010). Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6006), 926.
A journal article with 2 authors
Waddell, S., & Quinn, W. G. (2001). Neurobiology. Learning how a fruit fly forgets. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5533), 1271–1272.
A journal article with 3 authors
Carbone, F., Kwon, O.-H., & Zewail, A. H. (2009). Dynamics of chemical bonding mapped by energy-resolved 4D electron microscopy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5937), 181–184.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gabaix, X., Gopikrishnan, P., Plerou, V., & Stanley, H. E. (2003). A theory of power-law distributions in financial market fluctuations. Nature, 423(6937), 267–270.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walke, B., Seidenberg, R., & Althoff, M. P. (2005). UMTS. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bekkevold, J. I., & Till, G. (Eds.). (2016). International Order at Sea: How it is challenged. How it is maintained. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosen, E., & Tsesis, I. (2014). Surgical Anesthesia: When a Tool Becomes a Weapon. In I. Tsesis (Ed.), Complications in Endodontic Surgery: Prevention, Identification and Management (pp. 53–60). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Precision Agriculture.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, August 30). It Turns Out Russia Is Not The Biggest Offender When It Comes To Doping At The Olympics. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Remote Radar for Yakima (No. RCED-95-106R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nersessian, N. (2012). Modified gravity with scale invariance and implications (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Giordano, M. A., & Phillips, A. M. (2011, December 3). Mayor Hits Nerve in Remarks On Class Sizes and Teachers. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Peitgen 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Peitgen 2010; Waddell and Quinn 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Waddell and Quinn 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Gabaix et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePrecision Agriculture
AbbreviationPrecis. Agric.
ISSN (print)1385-2256
ISSN (online)1573-1618
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

Other styles