How to format your references using the Precision Agriculture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Precision Agriculture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Podos, J. (2001). Correlated evolution of morphology and vocal signal structure in Darwin’s finches. Nature, 409(6817), 185–188.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fasullo, J. T., & Trenberth, K. E. (2012). A less cloudy future: the role of subtropical subsidence in climate sensitivity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6108), 792–794.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pfeiffer, T., Schuster, S., & Bonhoeffer, S. (2001). Cooperation and competition in the evolution of ATP-producing pathways. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5516), 504–507.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pradhan, A. K., Mundle, R. M., Santiago, K., Skuza, J. R., Xiao, B., Song, K. D., et al. (2014). Extreme tunability in aluminum doped zinc oxide plasmonic materials for near-infrared applications. Scientific reports, 4, 6415.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dickson, E. F. G. (2012). Personal Protective Equipment for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Hazards. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Li, K., Jesshope, C., Jin, H., & Gaudiot, J.-L. (Eds.). (2007). Network and Parallel Computing: IFIP International Conference, NPC 2007, Dalian, China, September 18-21, 2007. Proceedings (Vol. 4672). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bona, C., Bona-Casas, C., & Palenzuela-Luque, C. (2009). First-Order Hyperbolic Systems. In C. Palenzuela-Luque & C. Bona-Casas (Eds.), Elements of Numerical Relativity and Relativistic Hydrodynamics: From Einstein’ s Equations to Astrophysical Simulations (pp. 79–108). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Precision Agriculture.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 6). 21 Critically Endangered Birds Discovered Stuffed Inside Bottles By Smugglers. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Cable Television and a Regulatory Policy (No. CED-76-124). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia, M. (2009). Perception of Latino students by teachers and counselors in the educational system (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Finnegan, J. P. (2017, May 29). Sheridan Expressway Shortcut. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Podos 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Fasullo and Trenberth 2012; Podos 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fasullo and Trenberth 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Pradhan et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePrecision Agriculture
AbbreviationPrecis. Agric.
ISSN (print)1385-2256
ISSN (online)1573-1618
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

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