How to format your references using the Precision Agriculture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Precision Agriculture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gifford, D. K. (2001). Blazing pathways through genetic mountains. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5537), 2049–2051.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dalton, W. S., & Friend, S. H. (2006). Cancer biomarkers--an invitation to the table. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5777), 1165–1168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spracklen, D. V., Arnold, S. R., & Taylor, C. M. (2012). Observations of increased tropical rainfall preceded by air passage over forests. Nature, 489(7415), 282–285.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sun, G., Ji, Q., Dilcher, D. L., Zheng, S., Nixon, K. C., & Wang, X. (2002). Archaefructaceae, a new basal angiosperm family. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5569), 899–904.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sab, K., & Lebée, A. (2015). Homogenization of Heterogeneous Thin and Thick Plates. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Field, J., & Vasconcelos, V. T. (Eds.). (2009). Coordination Models and Languages: 11th International Conference, COORDINATION 2009, Lisboa, Portugal, June 9-12, 2009. Proceedings (Vol. 5521). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kennard, L. (2014). On the Hopf Conjecture with Symmetry. In F. Galaz-García, L. Kennard, C. Searle, G. Weingart, & W. Ziller (Eds.), Geometry of Manifolds with Non-negative Sectional Curvature: Editors: Rafael Herrera, Luis Hernández-Lamoneda (pp. 111–116). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Precision Agriculture.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 29). Petition For ‘Man Eating’ Tiger Relocation Dismissed By Court. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Space Exploration: NASA’s Deep Space Missions Are Experiencing Long Delays (No. NSIAD-88-128BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alvandipour, M. (2017). Thermographic Image Analysis with Gabor Filters (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017, January 19). McCartney Sues to Get Back His Songs. New York Times, p. B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gifford 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Dalton and Friend 2006; Gifford 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dalton and Friend 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Sun et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePrecision Agriculture
AbbreviationPrecis. Agric.
ISSN (print)1385-2256
ISSN (online)1573-1618
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

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