How to format your references using the Oncotarget citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oncotarget. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davis B. Education. Mathematics teachers’ subtle, complex disciplinary knowledge. Science. 2011; 332: 1506–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Galun R, Ole-MoiYoi OK. Obituary: Thomas Risley Odhiambo (1931-2003). Nature. 2003; 425: 142.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berg E, Metlitski MA, Sachdev S. Sign-problem-free quantum Monte Carlo of the onset of antiferromagnetism in metals. Science. 2012; 338: 1606–9.
A journal article with 14 or more authors
Lyamin O, Pryaslova J, Lance V, Siegel J. Animal behaviour: continuous activity in cetaceans after birth. Nature. 2005; 435: 1177.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vacca JR. Optical Networking Best Practices Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Poggi I, D’Errico F, Vincze L, Vinciarelli A, editors. Multimodal Communication in Political Speech. Shaping Minds and Social Action: International Workshop, Political Speech 2010, Rome, Italy, November 10-12, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. X, 277 p. 34 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang J, Chen W. A Novel Localization System Based on Infrared Vision for Outdoor Mobile Robot. In: Li K, Jia L, Sun X, Fei M, Irwin GW, editors. Life System Modeling and Intelligent Computing: International Conference on Life System Modeling and Simulation, LSMS 2010, and International Conference on Intelligent Computing for Sustainable Energy and Environment, ICSEE 2010, Wuxi, China, September 17-20, 2010 Proceedings, Part III. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 33–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oncotarget.

Blog post
Taub B. Electric Shocks To The Brain Help People Navigate A Maze Without Even Seeing It [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available 2018 Oct 30, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Chemical and Biological Warfare: Use of Collective Protection on Vehicles, Aircraft, and Ships. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Sep. Report No.: NSIAD-91-273FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson S. Individual sense of efficacy, collective teacher efficacy and student achievement in high achieving and low achieving urban public schools [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. Did Kuwait Copy Trump’s Travel Ban? Not Quite. New York Times. 2017; : A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOncotarget
ISSN (online)1949-2553

Other styles