How to format your references using the Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Banks M. Seeking a PhD abroad. Nature. 2007;445:680.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. de Waal FB, Berger ML. Payment for labour in monkeys. Nature. 2000;404:563.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. LeCun Y, Bengio Y, Hinton G. Deep learning. Nature. 2015;521:436–44.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hu JH, Miller SM, Geurts MH, Tang W, Chen L, Sun N, et al. Evolved Cas9 variants with broad PAM compatibility and high DNA specificity. Nature. 2018;556:57–63.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Tikhomirov VV. Hydrogeochemistry Fundamentals and Advances. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Gregory MA. Security and the Networked Society. Glance D, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Stathi S, Roscini C. Identity and Acculturation Processes in Multicultural Societies. In: McKeown S, Haji R, Ferguson N, editors. Understanding Peace and Conflict Through Social Identity Theory: Contemporary Global Perspectives. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 55–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Markings On 3.4-Million-Year-Old Bones Suggest They Were Butchered, Not Trampled [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/markings-34-million-year-old-bones-suggest-they-were-butchered-not-trampled/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Senate Bill 543: The Job Training Partnership Act Youth Employment Amendments of 1989. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 May. Report No.: T-HRD-89-18.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sharp LM. Creative nonfiction illuminated: Cross-disciplinary spotlights [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Romero S, Yardley J. Francis Says Contraception Can Be Used to Slow Zika. New York Times. 2016 Feb 19;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
AbbreviationClin. Diabetes Endocrinol.
ISSN (online)2055-8260
Scope

Other styles