How to format your references using the Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hubler GK. Fluff balls of fire. Nature. 2000;403:487–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Saunders MA, Lea AS. Seasonal prediction of hurricane activity reaching the coast of the United States. Nature. 2005;434:1005–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Martincorena I, Seshasayee ASN, Luscombe NM. Evidence of non-random mutation rates suggests an evolutionary risk management strategy. Nature. 2012;485:95–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Iwashita T, Kruger GM, Pardal R, Kiel MJ, Morrison SJ. Hirschsprung disease is linked to defects in neural crest stem cell function. Science. 2003;301:972–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hase Y. Handbook of Power Systems Engineering with Power Electronics Applications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Moreira O. Scheduling Real-Time Streaming Applications onto an Embedded Multiprocessor. Corporaal H, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sheppard B, Slavin D. The Use of War Game Simulations for Business Strategies. In: Linkov I, Ferguson E, Magar VS, editors. Real-Time and Deliberative Decision Making: Application to Emerging Stressors. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009. p. 77–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Killer Squirrel has World’s Bushiest Tail [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Social Security Administration’s Data Exchanges Support Current Programs, but Better Planning Is Needed to Meet Future Demands. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Sep. Report No.: GAO-09-966.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Collins JD. Answers in diagenesis: Assessing mussel shell diagenesis in the modern vadose zone at Lyon’s Bluff (22OK520), northeast Mississippi [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Boucher B. Between Fable and Fact. New York Times. 2017 Sep 8;BR9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
AbbreviationClin. Diabetes Endocrinol.
ISSN (online)2055-8260

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