How to format your references using the Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gershon D. Probing real-time protein interactions. Nature. 2004;432:249.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Steele EJ, Blanden RV. Lamarck and antibody genes. Science. 2000;288:2318d–9d.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Li S, Matthews J, Sinha A. Atmospheric hydroxyl radical production from electronically excited NO2 and H2O. Science. 2008;319:1657–60.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yang G-M, Cheng C-F, Jiang W, Lu Z-T, Purtschert R, Sun Y-R, et al. Analysis of 85Kr: a comparison at the 10 -14 level using micro-liter samples. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1596.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Use of Vapor Cloud Dispersion Models. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1996.
An edited book
1. Agrawal A, Britz G, editors. Comprehensive Guide to Neurosurgical Conditions. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ukimura O, Gill IS. Cryoablation for Renal Cell Carcinoma. In: Baba S, Ono Y, editors. Interventional Management of Urological Diseases. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2006. p. 65–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology.

Blog post
1. Hale T. These GIFs Show You What It’s Like To Be Color Blind [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: TSA Has Taken Steps to Improve Oversight of Key Programs, but Additional Actions Are Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 May. Report No.: GAO-15-559T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Nadeau EM. Baby Boomer Generation’s Knowledge of Alzheimer’s Disease [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Schmitt E, Gordon MR, Sengupta S. U.S. Ties Russia to Strike on U.N. Convoy in Syria. New York Times. 2016 Sep 20;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
AbbreviationClin. Diabetes Endocrinol.
ISSN (online)2055-8260

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