How to format your references using the Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Fukatsu T. Evolution. A fungal past to insect color. Science. 2010;328:574–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Anderson S, Coulter D. Neuroscience. Neuronal birth to cortical circuitry. Science. 2013;340:1058–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Selje N, Simon M, Brinkhoff T. A newly discovered Roseobacter cluster in temperate and polar oceans. Nature. 2004;427:445–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Banu N, Chia A, Ho ZZ, Garcia AT, Paravasivam K, Grotenbreg GM, et al. Building and optimizing a virus-specific T cell receptor library for targeted immunotherapy in viral infections. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4166.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Malina M. Delivering Sustainable Buildings. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1. Coluccia G. Compressed Sensing for Distributed Systems. Ravazzi C, Magli E, editors. Singapore: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cerone P, Dragomir SS, Kikianty E. Error Bounds for Trapezoid Type Quadrature Rules with Applications for the Mean and Variance. In: Daras NJ, editor. Applications of Mathematics and Informatics in Science and Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 77–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Cannabis Studies Called Into Question As Research Weed Is Too Weak [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Proposed Alliance Between American Airlines and British Airways Raises Competition Concerns and Public Interest Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Dec. Report No.: GAO-02-293R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Benware A. The Roles of Teaching Experience and Authoritative Classroom Management Style on Student Discipline [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Blanchard K. Let the Pill Go Free. New York Times. 2010 Jun 22;A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
AbbreviationClin. Diabetes Endocrinol.
ISSN (online)2055-8260

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