How to format your references using the Pramana citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pramana. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. S. S. Morse, Science 319, 1351 (2008).
A journal article with 2 authors
1. A. B. Barron and M. J. F. Brown, Nature 488, 151 (2012).
A journal article with 3 authors
1. D. S. Cram, B. Song, and A. O. Trounson, Nature 450, E12 (2007).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. L.-H.-H. Aung, R.-X. Yin, J.-Z. Wu, D.-F. Wu, W. Wang, and H. Li, Sci. Rep. 4, 5565 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. D. J. Adams, P. J. Dyson, and S. J. Tavener, Chemistry in Alternative Reaction Media (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2005).
An edited book
1. A. Marchetti-Spaccamela and M. Segal, editors , Theory and Practice of Algorithms in (Computer) Systems: First International ICST Conference, TAPAS 2011, Rome, Italy, April 18-20, 2011. Proceedings (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011).
A chapter in an edited book
1. X. Wang, W. Gu, K. Schosek, S. Chellappan, and D. Xuan, in Networking and Mobile Computing: Third International Conference, ICCNMC 2005, Zhangjiajie, China, August 2-4, 2005. Proceedings, edited by X. Lu and W. Zhao (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005), pp. 23–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pramana.

Blog post
1. J. Fang, IFLScience (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office, Public Transportation: Requirements for Smaller Capital Projects Generally Seen as Less Burdensome (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. J. C. Collette, Validation of the TgFgfr1-EGFP Mouse Line as a Tool to Study Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 Cellular Localization and Expression After Experimental Manipulations, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. S. Ember and M. J. de la MERCED, New York Times B1 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePramana
ISSN (print)0304-4289
ISSN (online)0973-7111

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