How to format your references using the International Journal of Ethics Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Ethics Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D. 2000. Western researchers reap rich rewards in eastern institutions. Nature 407: 657–658.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kreft, Holger, and Walter Jetz. 2013. Comment on “An update of Wallace’s zoogeographic regions of the world.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 341: 343.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cai, Long, Chiraj K. Dalal, and Michael B. Elowitz. 2008. Frequency-modulated nuclear localization bursts coordinate gene regulation. Nature 455: 485–490.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Joshi, Nitin, Nitesh Shirsath, Ankur Singh, Kalpana S. Joshi, and Rinti Banerjee. 2014. Endogenous lung surfactant inspired pH responsive nanovesicle aerosols: pulmonary compatible and site-specific drug delivery in lung metastases. Scientific reports 4: 7085.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stein, Ross L. 2011. Kinetics of Enzyme Action. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Stanger, Olaf, ed. 2012. Water Soluble Vitamins: Clinical Research and Future Application. Vol. 56. Subcellular Biochemistry. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Cuzzocrea, Alfredo, and Andrea Nucita. 2009. Reasoning on Incompleteness of Spatial Information for Effectively and Efficiently Answering Range Queries over Incomplete Spatial Databases. In Flexible Query Answering Systems: 8th International Conference, FQAS 2009, Roskilde, Denmark, October 26-28, 2009. Proceedings, ed. Troels Andreasen, Ronald R. Yager, Henrik Bulskov, Henning Christiansen, and Henrik Legind Larsen, 37–52. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Ethics Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. Watch Mars Opportunity Complete the First Ever Off-Earth Marathon in this NASA Time-lapse. IFLScience. IFLScience. July 10.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. NASA’s Deep Space Network: Current Management Structure Is Not Conducive to Effectively Matching Resources with Future Requirements. GAO-06-445. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Busalacchi, Niomi M. 2013. Access to healthcare: Disparities between the non-elderly adult population. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary. 2010. Silver Jubilee. New York Times, September 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gershon 2000; Kreft and Jetz 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kreft and Jetz 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Joshi et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Ethics Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Ethics Educ.
ISSN (print)2363-9997
ISSN (online)2364-0006

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