How to format your references using the International Journal of Ethics Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Ethics Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zwier, Timothy S. 2009. Chemistry. Squeezing the water out of HCl(aq). Science (New York, N.Y.) 324: 1522–1523.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, Janet L., and David H. Sherman. 2008. Biochemistry. An enzyme assembly line. Science (New York, N.Y.) 321: 1304–1305.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taylor, Michael W., Robert W. Thacker, and Ute Hentschel. 2007. Genetics. Evolutionary insights from sponges. Science (New York, N.Y.) 316: 1854–1855.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mitchell, Brian, Richard Jacobs, Julie Li, Shu Chien, and Chris Kintner. 2007. A positive feedback mechanism governs the polarity and motion of motile cilia. Nature 447: 97–101.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schorn, Christian, and Brian Taylor. 2004. NMR Spectroscopy: Data Acquisition. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Leibe, Bastian, Jiri Matas, Nicu Sebe, and Max Welling, ed. 2016. Computer Vision – ECCV 2016: 14th European Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, October 11-14, 2016, Proceedings, Part III. Vol. 9907. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Quarteroni, Alfio, and Fausto Saleri. 2006. Numerical differentiation and integration. In Scientific Computing with MATLAB and Octave: Second Edition, ed. Fausto Saleri, 101–122. Texts in Computational Science and Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Ethics Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. Scientists Develop Mantis Shrimp-Inspired Sensors That Can Detect Cancer. IFLScience. IFLScience. September 22.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Aviation Safety: FAA Has Improved Its Removal Procedures for Pilot Examiners. RCED-89-199. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kent, Lyndzee. 2017. Justification-Suppression of Gender and Race Bias in Hiring: The Impact of Accountability. Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. 2004. Arts, Briefly; High Season for Russian Art in London Auctions. New York Times, December 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zwier 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Smith and Sherman 2008; Zwier 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith and Sherman 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Mitchell et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Ethics Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Ethics Educ.
ISSN (print)2363-9997
ISSN (online)2364-0006

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