How to format your references using the Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moazed D: Molecular biology. Rejoice--RNAi for yeast. Science 2009;326:533–534.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hegerl GC, Solomon S: Climate change. Risks of climate engineering. Science 2009;325:955–956.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakakura A, Ukai A, Ishihara K: Enantioselective halocyclization of polyprenoids induced by nucleophilic phosphoramidites. Nature 2007;445:900–903.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kitajima TS, Sakuno T, Ishiguro K-I, Iemura S-I, Natsume T, Kawashima SA, et al.: Shugoshin collaborates with protein phosphatase 2A to protect cohesin. Nature 2006;441:46–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Porter AL, Cunningham SW: Tech Mining. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004.
An edited book
Tarantino U: La gestione delle fratture da fragilità ossea: Raccomandazioni per chirurghi ortopedici. Milano, Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Ifenthaler D, Pirnay-Dummer P: States and Processes of Learning Communities. Engaging Students in Meaningful Reflection and Learning; in White B, King I, Tsang P (eds): Social Media Tools and Platforms in Learning Environments. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2011, pp 81–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation.

Blog post
Hamilton K: Massive Genetic Study Maps US Migration History. IFLScience 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Telecommunications: 1991 Survey of Cable Television Rates and Services. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barbeau SJ: A Location-Aware Architecture Supporting Intelligent Real-Time Mobile Applications 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B: Sharapova Given Wild Card Into U.S. Open, Her First Major Since 2016. New York Times 2017;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
AbbreviationGynecol. Obstet. Invest.
ISSN (print)0378-7346
ISSN (online)1423-002X
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology
Reproductive Medicine

Other styles