How to format your references using the Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russell MJ. Geochemistry. The importance of being alkaline. Science. 2003 Oct;302(5645):580–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wortmann UG, Chernyavsky BM. Effect of evaporite deposition on Early Cretaceous carbon and sulphur cycling. Nature. 2007 Apr;446(7136):654–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gertz J, Siggia ED, Cohen BA. Analysis of combinatorial cis-regulation in synthetic and genomic promoters. Nature. 2009 Jan;457(7226):215–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wu G, Takahashi M, Arai K, Inaba H, Minoshima K. Extremely high-accuracy correction of air refractive index using two-colour optical frequency combs. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1894.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson SK, Handelsman MM. Ethics for Psychotherapists and Counselors. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
An edited book
Tian X. Entropy Coders of the H.264/AVC Standard: Algorithms and VLSI Architectures. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
De Petro P, Battiston B, Matteotti R, Petraz M, Molino D. Omero: diafisi. In: Faletti C, editor. Traumatologia scheletrica: Imaging integrato clinico-radiologico. Milano: Springer; 2016; pp 81–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation.

Blog post
Davis J. Americans Throw Twice As Much Trash In Landfills As Previously Thought [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Sep [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Federal and State Universal Service Programs and Challenges to Funding. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schmidt MP. Being here. 2013

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. British Invasion, Only This Time It’s in Retail. New York Times. 2010 May;E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
AbbreviationGynecol. Obstet. Invest.
ISSN (print)0378-7346
ISSN (online)1423-002X
ScopeObstetrics and Gynaecology
Reproductive Medicine

Other styles