How to format your references using the Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedman, William E. 2013. “Plant Science. One Genome, Two Ontogenies.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339 (6123): 1045–1046.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kodama, R., and Fast-Ignitor Consortium. 2002. “Fast Heating Scalable to Laser Fusion Ignition.” Nature 418 (6901): 933–934.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maisel, Sascha B., Michaela Höfler, and Stefan Müller. 2012. “A Canonical Stability-Elasticity Relationship Verified for One Million Face-Centred-Cubic Structures.” Nature 491 (7426): 740–743.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ma, Hui, Jin Rong Ow, Bobby Cheng Peow Tan, Ziyi Goh, Bo Feng, Yuin Han Loh, Monica Fedele, Hu Li, and Qiang Wu. 2014. “The Dosage of Patz1 Modulates Reprogramming Process.” Scientific Reports 4 (December): 7519.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kenett, Ron S., Shelemyahu Zacks, and Daniele Amberti. 2013. Modern Industrial Statistics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel, and Mijung Kim, eds. 2012. Issues and Challenges in Science Education Research: Moving Forward. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Young, Richard A., Sheila K. Marshall, Ladislav Valach, José F. Domene, Matthew D. Graham, and Anat Zaidman-Zait. 2011. “Studying Transition Processes.” In Transition to Adulthood: Action, Projects, and Counseling, edited by Sheila K. Marshall, Ladislav Valach, José F. Domene, Matthew D. Graham, and Anat Zaidman-Zait, 37–49. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Human Spaceflight Launches Will Return to the United States.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. FAA Budget: 1991 Funding Request for Computers and Communications Can Be Reduced. IMTEC-90-89. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khatib, Eid. 2010. “A Phenomenological Study on the Potential Impact of Implementing Information Systems in Midsize Corporations.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, Erin. 1994. “Groups Trace Soldiers’ Footsteps.” New York Times, April 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Friedman 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Friedman 2013; Kodama and Fast-Ignitor Consortium 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kodama and Fast-Ignitor Consortium 2002)
  • Three authors: (Maisel, Höfler, and Müller 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ma et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePractice
AbbreviationPractice (Birm.)
ISSN (print)0950-3153
ISSN (online)1742-4909
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science

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