How to format your references using the Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kay, Richard F. 2015. “Anthropology. New World Monkey Origins.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 347 (6226): 1068–1069.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tomkins, Joseph L., and Gordon S. Brown. 2004. “Population Density Drives the Local Evolution of a Threshold Dimorphism.” Nature 431 (7012): 1099–1103.
A journal article with 3 authors
Larsen, Ross E., William J. Glover, and Benjamin J. Schwartz. 2010. “Does the Hydrated Electron Occupy a Cavity?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 329 (5987): 65–69.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lugo, J. E., R. Doti, N. Sanchez, M. B. de la Mora, J. A. del Rio, and J. Faubert. 2014. “The Bifoil Photodyne: A Photonic Crystal Oscillator.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3705.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sedivy, Julie, and Greg Carlson. 2011. Sold on Language. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Thangavel, P., and G. Sridevi, eds. 2015. Environmental Sustainability: Role of Green Technologies. New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Barkeshli, Kasra, and Sina Khorasani. 2015. “Wave Harmonics and Guided Waves.” In Advanced Electromagnetics and Scattering Theory, edited by Sina Khorasani, 109–210. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Magnetic Levitation Train Could Reach Speeds Of 1,800 Miles Per Hour.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1984. Major Federal Research and Development Agencies Are Implementing the Patent and Trademark Amendments of 1980. RCED-84-26. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia, Carmen Alicia. 2010. “Tracking Chemistry Self-Efficacy and Achievement in a Preparatory Chemistry Course.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dwyer, Jim. 2015. “A Police Shot to a Boy’s Back, Echoing Since ’73.” New York Times, April 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kay 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Kay 2015; Tomkins and Brown 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tomkins and Brown 2004)
  • Three authors: (Larsen, Glover, and Schwartz 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lugo et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePractice
AbbreviationPractice (Birm.)
ISSN (print)0950-3153
ISSN (online)1742-4909
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science

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