How to format your references using the Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crabtree, Robert H. 2007. “Chemistry. No Protection Required.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318 (5851): 756–757.
A journal article with 2 authors
Côté, Jean-François, and Kristiina Vuori. 2009. “Cell Biology. Two Lipids That Give Direction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 (5925): 346–347.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shubin, Neil H., Edward B. Daeschler, and Michael I. Coates. 2004. “The Early Evolution of the Tetrapod Humerus.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304 (5667): 90–93.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hamada, Fumika N., Mark Rosenzweig, Kyeongjin Kang, Stefan R. Pulver, Alfredo Ghezzi, Timothy J. Jegla, and Paul A. Garrity. 2008. “An Internal Thermal Sensor Controlling Temperature Preference in Drosophila.” Nature 454 (7201): 217–220.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Homer, Sidney, and Martin L. Leibowitz. 2013. Inside the Yield Book. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gorrieri, Roberto, and Heike Wehrheim, eds. 2006. Formal Methods for Open Object-Based Distributed Systems: 8th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, FMOODS 2006, Bologna, Italy, June 14-16, 2006. Proceedings. Vol. 4037. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Borwein, Jonathan M., and Matthew P. Skerritt. 2011. “Visualization and Geometry: A Postscript.” In An Introduction to Modern Mathematical Computing: With MapleTM, edited by Matthew P. Skerritt, 187–201. Springer Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics and Technology. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Practice.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2017. “Giant Craters Created By Enormous Seafloor Methane Explosions From The Last Ice Age.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Highway Trust Fund: Strategies for Safeguarding Highway Financing. RCED-92-245. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Detoya, Maria Stephanie. 2017. “Canned Food Choices of College Students Using the Nuval ® Nutrient-Profiling System.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yeginsu, Ceylan, and Prashant S. Rao. 2017. “Malala Yousafzai, Girls’ Advocate Shot by Taliban, Has Been Accepted to Oxford.” New York Times, August 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crabtree 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Crabtree 2007; Côté and Vuori 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Côté and Vuori 2009)
  • Three authors: (Shubin, Daeschler, and Coates 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hamada et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePractice
AbbreviationPractice (Birm.)
ISSN (print)0950-3153
ISSN (online)1742-4909
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science

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