How to format your references using the Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich. 2009. “Journal Club. An Infection Biologist Points out an Outstanding Issue in Mucosal Immunology.” Nature 459 (7249): 893.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tobias, S. M., and F. Cattaneo. 2013. “Shear-Driven Dynamo Waves at High Magnetic Reynolds Number.” Nature 497 (7450): 463–465.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tupler, R., G. Perini, and M. R. Green. 2001. “Expressing the Human Genome.” Nature 409 (6822): 832–833.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chen, Zhiqing, Lingna Mao, Chengyu Liu, James R. Blake, and Dingchang Zheng. 2014. “Decreased Peripheral Arterial Volume Distensibility in Patients with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion in Comparison with Normal Subjects.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6685.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Di Stefano, Michael. 2005. Distributed Data Management for Grid Computing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Peris-Ortiz, Marta, and José M. Merigó Lindahl, eds. 2015. Sustainable Learning in Higher Education: Developing Competencies for the Global Marketplace. Innovation, Technology, and Knowledge Management. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Faye, Papa. 2016. “Adding Scepticism About ‘Environmentality’: Gender Exclusion Through a Natural Resources Collectivization Initiative in Dionewar, Senegal.” In Dryland Forests: Management and Social Diversity in Africa and Asia, edited by Purabi Bose and Han van Dijk, 95–114. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Novel Therapy Allows Paraplegic Patients To Regain Voluntary Movement.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. National Airspace System: DOT and FAA Actions Will Likely Have a Limited Effect on Reducing Delays during Summer 2008 Travel Season. GAO-08-934T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haws, Susan Wallace. 2012. “A Multilevel Study of Schools’ Influences on Adolescent Substance Use.” Doctoral dissertation, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2006. “Justices Hear Arguments Over Whether Foreigners Have Reciprocal Rights in the U.S.” New York Times, March 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hardt 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Hardt 2009; Tobias and Cattaneo 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tobias and Cattaneo 2013)
  • Three authors: (Tupler, Perini, and Green 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chen et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePractice
AbbreviationPractice (Birm.)
ISSN (print)0950-3153
ISSN (online)1742-4909
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles