How to format your references using the Critical African Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Critical African Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ridley, Robert G. 2002. “Medical Need, Scientific Opportunity and the Drive for Antimalarial Drugs.” Nature 415 (6872): 686–693.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thiel, P. A., and J. M. Dubois. 2000. “Quasicrystals. Electrons in a Strange Sea.” Nature 406 (6796): 570–571, 573.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vance, Derek, Damon A. H. Teagle, and Gavin L. Foster. 2009. “Variable Quaternary Chemical Weathering Fluxes and Imbalances in Marine Geochemical Budgets.” Nature 458 (7237): 493–496.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Weigel, Linda M., Don B. Clewell, Steven R. Gill, Nancye C. Clark, Linda K. McDougal, Susan E. Flannagan, James F. Kolonay, Jyoti Shetty, George E. Killgore, and Fred C. Tenover. 2003. “Genetic Analysis of a High-Level Vancomycin-Resistant Isolate of Staphylococcus Aureus.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302 (5650): 1569–1571.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Edwards, John. 2004. Telecosmos. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Huang, Yong. 2010. Novel Colloidal Forming of Ceramics. Edited by Jinlong Yang. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Goodess, Clare M., Maureen D. Agnew, Christos Giannakopoulos, Debbie Hemming, Skander Ben Salem, Marco Bindi, Mohamed Nejmeddine Bradai, et al. 2013. “Integration of the Climate Impact Assessments with Future Projections.” In Regional Assessment of Climate Change in the Mediterranean: Volume 3: Case Studies, edited by Antonio Navarra and Laurence Tubiana, 105–162. Advances in Global Change Research. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Critical African Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Improved Anti-HIV Antibodies Created Through Genetic Engineering.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Space Station: Inadequate Planning and Design Led to Propulsion Module Project Failure. GAO-01-633. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mueller, Krysti. 2017. “Biases in the Selection Process Against Applicants with Tattoos.” Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cook, Linda, and Patricia R. Olsen. 2009. “It Started at the Gas Pump.” New York Times, May 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ridley 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Ridley 2002; Thiel and Dubois 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thiel and Dubois 2000)
  • Three authors: (Vance, Teagle, and Foster 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Weigel et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCritical African Studies
AbbreviationCrit. Afr. Stud.
ISSN (print)2168-1392
ISSN (online)2040-7211
ScopeGeneral Arts and Humanities
General Social Sciences

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