How to format your references using the Arab Journal of Urology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arab Journal of Urology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Albarède F. Rogue mantle helium and neon. Science 2008;319:943–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang Y, Sontheimer EJ. Structural biology. Cascading into focus. Science 2014;345:1452–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu B, Baskin RJ, Kowalczykowski SC. DNA unwinding heterogeneity by RecBCD results from static molecules able to equilibrate. Nature 2013;500:482–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Amonlirdviman K, Khare NA, Tree DRP, Chen W-S, Axelrod JD, Tomlin CJ. Mathematical modeling of planar cell polarity to understand domineering nonautonomy. Science 2005;307:423–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quinquis A. Digital Signal Processing using MATLAB®. London, UK: ISTE; 2008.
An edited book
Ślęzak D, Yao J, Peters JF, Ziarko W, Hu X, editors. Rough Sets, Fuzzy Sets, Data Mining, and Granular Computing: 10th International Conference, RSFDGrC 2005, Regina, Canada, August 31 - September 3, 2005, Proceedings, Part II. vol. 3642. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Solonnikov V. On Problem of Stability of Equilibrium Figures of Uniformly Rotating Viscous Incompressible Liquid. In: Bardos C, Fursikov A, editors. Instability in Models Connected with Fluid Flows II, New York, NY: Springer; 2008, p. 189–254.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arab Journal of Urology.

Blog post
Fang J. Why Do Lizard Throat Fans Glow? IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Rail Transit: Observations on FTA’s State Safety Oversight Program and Potential Change in Its Oversight Role. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tengco MA. Quality Home Care: Providing Personal Care and Homemaking Services for Seniors in the Community. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. The One And Only: The Footprints On a Path to Gold. New York Times 2012:SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArab Journal of Urology
AbbreviationArab J. Urol.
ISSN (print)2090-598X

Other styles