How to format your references using the Arab Journal of Urology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Arab Journal of Urology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C. Wanted: Fraud-buster with political antennae. Nature 2014;507:275.
A journal article with 2 authors
Onishi KH, Baillargeon R. Do 15-month-old infants understand false beliefs? Science 2005;308:255–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Andrews-Hanna JC, Phillips RJ, Zuber MT. Meridiani Planum and the global hydrology of Mars. Nature 2007;446:163–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen A, Weigand M, Bi Z, Zhang W, Lü X, Dowden P, et al. Evolution of microstructure, strain and physical properties in oxide nanocomposite films. Sci Rep 2014;4:5426.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bayor RH. Fiorello La Guardia. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
Řepa V, Bruckner T, editors. Perspectives in Business Informatics Research: 15th International Conference, BIR 2016, Prague, Czech Republic, September 15–16, 2016, Proceedings. vol. 261. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Prabhu VS, Alnaqi AA, Brooks PC. The Thermal Characterisation of a Disc Brake Rotor at Reduced Scale with Particular Reference to Pad Aspect Ratio. In: Andreescu C, Clenci A, editors. Proceedings of the European Automotive Congress EAEC-ESFA 2015, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 51–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Arab Journal of Urology.

Blog post
Andrew E. One Last Look At Saturn’s Moon Dione. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Certain Food Aspects of the School Lunch Program in New York City. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Frederick K. Wool and Water. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Folkers KM. The Millennials’ S.T.D.? New York Times 2016:SR5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleArab Journal of Urology
AbbreviationArab J. Urol.
ISSN (print)2090-598X

Other styles