How to format your references using the Practical Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Practical Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vernes SC. Genome wide identification of fruitless targets suggests a role in upregulating genes important for neural circuit formation. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4412.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hempstead BL, Salzer JL. Neurobiology. A glial spin on neurotrophins. Science. 2002;298(5596):1184-1186.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ta VD, Chen R, Sun HD. Tuning whispering gallery mode lasing from self-assembled polymer droplets. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1362.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Peng T, Lv H, He D, Pan M, Mu S. Direct transformation of amorphous silicon carbide into graphene under low temperature and ambient pressure. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1148.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Püschl W. Physik Des Segelns. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
Vadhan SP, ed. Theory of Cryptography: 4th Theory of Cryptography Conference, TCC 2007, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, February 21-24, 2007. Proceedings. Vol 4392. Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Takahashi N, Sahani DV. CT and MRI Features. In: Levy MJ, Chari ST, eds. Autoimmune (IgG4-Related) Pancreatitis and Cholangitis. Springer; 2013:61-68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Practical Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
Fang J. Eel-Like Amphibian 278 Million Years Old With Fangs Found In Brazil. IFLScience. Published November 5, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Job Corps Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wiggins BB. Using Induced Signals to Develop a Position-Sensitive Microchannel Plate Detector. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sengupta S, Hubbard B. Truce That Trump Announced at G-20 Survives Its First Day in Southwestern Syria. New York Times. July 10, 2017:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePractical Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationPract. Radiat. Oncol.
ISSN (print)1879-8500
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles