How to format your references using the Practical Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Practical Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mayr G. Old World fossil record of modern-type hummingbirds. Science. 2004;304(5672):861-864.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schadt E, Chang R. Genetics. A GPS for navigating DNA. Science. 2012;337(6099):1179-1180.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang TT, Parides MK, Palese P. Seroevidence for H5N1 influenza infections in humans: meta-analysis. Science. 2012;335(6075):1463.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
van der Marel D, Molegraaf HJA, Zaanen J, et al. Quantum critical behaviour in a high-T(c) superconductor. Nature. 2003;425(6955):271-274.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heywood J. Engineering Education. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Jiao Z. Distributed-Order Dynamic Systems: Stability, Simulation, Applications and Perspectives. (Chen Y, Podlubny I, eds.). Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Dick J. On Quasi-Monte Carlo Rules Achieving Higher Order Convergence. In: L’ Ecuyer P, Owen AB, eds. Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods 2008. Springer; 2009:73-96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Practical Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
Andrew E. There Was A Decline Of Male Diversity When Humans Took To Agriculture. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Statutory Copyright Licenses: Stakeholders’ Views on a Phaseout of Licenses for Broadcast Programming. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Colna KE. Latitudinal Position and Trends of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and its Relationship with Upwelling in the Southern Caribbean Sea and Global Climate Indices. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman PW. El desminado y la paz avanzan lentamente en Colombia. New York Times. April 20, 2015:A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePractical Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationPract. Radiat. Oncol.
ISSN (print)1879-8500
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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