How to format your references using the EJNMMI Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EJNMMI Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Smaglik P. Visions of Europe’s future. Nature. 2003;421:557.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Krasnopolsky VA, Feldman PD. Detection of molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere of Mars. Science. 2001;294:1914–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Raymo ME, Lisiecki LE, Nisancioglu KH. Plio-Pleistocene ice volume, Antarctic climate, and the global delta18O record. Science. 2006;313:492–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zhao F, Bottjer DJ, Hu S, Yin Z, Zhu M. Complexity and diversity of eyes in early Cambrian ecosystems. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2751.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ezra D, Collie B, Smith MX. The Retirement Plan Solution. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Camesano TA, editor. Nanotechnology to Aid Chemical and Biological Defense. 1st ed. 2015. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Venstermans K, Eeckhout L, De Bosschere K. Object-Relative Addressing: Compressed Pointers in 64-Bit Java Virtual Machines. In: Ernst E, editor. ECOOP 2007 – Object-Oriented Programming: 21st European Conference, Berlin, Germany, July 30 - August 3, 2007 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 79–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EJNMMI Physics.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. From Medical Treatment To Diet And Lifestyle Choice: How To Spot Unreliable Health Research. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Observations on Selected Aspects of School Lunch Program Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981 May. Report No.: 115342.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Coggin LL. Creating discourses of possibility: Storying between the real and the imagined to negotiate rural lives in two elementary classrooms [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Barron J. A Tree Older Than Columbus Finally Succumbs. New York Times. 2016 Oct 16;A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEJNMMI Physics
AbbreviationEJNMMI Phys.
ISSN (online)2197-7364

Other styles