How to format your references using the EJNMMI Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EJNMMI Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. van den Heuvel EPJ. Astronomy. Double pulsar jackpot. Science. 2004;303:1143–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Yang G, Zhou L. Zwitterionic versus canonical amino acids over the various defects in zeolites: a two-layer ONIOM calculation. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6594.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Chen F, Lam C-H, Tsui OKC. Materials science. The surface mobility of glasses. Science. 2014;343:975–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Mazurek MD, Schreiter KM, Prevedel R, Kaltenbaek R, Resch KJ. Dispersion-cancelled biological imaging with quantum-inspired interferometry. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1582.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hood D, Trojer E. Gigabit-Capable Passive Optical Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Corrigan KP, Mearns A, editors. Creating and Digitizing Language Corpora: Volume 3: Databases for Public Engagement. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Menirav E. On the Convergence of Various Unidimensional Approaches. In: Lemmi A, Betti G, editors. Fuzzy Set Approach to Multidimensional Poverty Measurement. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006. p. 73–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EJNMMI Physics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. NASA’s Visualization Explorer App Now Available on All iOS Devices [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:’s-visualization-explorer-app-now-available-all-ios-devices/


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. National Transportation Safety Board: Issues Related to the 2010 Reauthorization. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010 Jan. Report No.: GAO-10-366T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Prather MR. Pink, blues, blacks, and the Union Jack: Mod’s reinterpretation of Britishness, 1962-1964 [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly C. A Fresh Discovery, Three Decades in the Making. New York Times. 2012 Apr 8;A23B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEJNMMI Physics
AbbreviationEJNMMI Phys.
ISSN (online)2197-7364

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