How to format your references using the Lung Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lung Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Smaglik, The places to be, Nature. 433 (2005) 551.
A journal article with 2 authors
F.N. Papavasiliou, D.G. Schatz, Cell-cycle-regulated DNA double-stranded breaks in somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes, Nature. 408 (2000) 216–221.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Sweeney, C. Jiggins, S. Johnsen, Insect communication: Polarized light as a butterfly mating signal, Nature. 423 (2003) 31–32.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Sui, B.G. Han, J.K. Lee, P. Walian, B.K. Jap, Structural basis of water-specific transport through the AQP1 water channel, Nature. 414 (2001) 872–878.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Cauvin, F. Escobar, A. Serradj, Cartography and the Impact of the Quantitative Revolution, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
F. Zavoral, J.J. Jung, C. Badica, eds., Intelligent Distributed Computing VII: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing - IDC 2013, Prague, Czech Republic, September 2013, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
S.C. Khojasteh, H. Wong, C.E.C.A. Hop, Metabolism-Based Drug Interactions, in: H. Wong, C.E.C.A. Hop (Eds.), Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics Quick Guide, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 73–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lung Cancer.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Researchers Discover New Technique For Identifying Rare Stem Cells in Bone Marrow, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Year 2000 Computing Crisis: USDA Needs to Accelerate Time Frames for Completing Contingency Planning, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L.M. Medina, Living with Global Shocks: Examining the Responses of Firms and Governments, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Kelly, O.K., Google, Take a Deep Breath, New York Times. (2012) BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLung Cancer
AbbreviationLung Cancer
ISSN (print)0169-5002
ScopeCancer Research
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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