How to format your references using the Lung Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lung Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.W. Steed, Crystals that breathe, Nature. 406 (2000) 943–944.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.G. Canadell, M.R. Raupach, Managing forests for climate change mitigation, Science. 320 (2008) 1456–1457.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Lemieux, C. Otis, M. Turmel, Ancestral chloroplast genome in Mesostigma viride reveals an early branch of green plant evolution, Nature. 403 (2000) 649–652.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Egli, J. Rosains, G. Birkhoff, K. Eggan, Developmental reprogramming after chromosome transfer into mitotic mouse zygotes, Nature. 447 (2007) 679–685.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Pesavento, S. Smoleny, A Trader’s Guide to Financial Astrology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
Z. Liu, H. Ukida, P. Ramuhalli, K. Niel, eds., Integrated Imaging and Vision Techniques for Industrial Inspection: Advances and Applications, 1st ed. 2015, Springer, London, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Holmstrup, C.H. Nielsen, Linkage Between Periodontal Disease and Rheumatoid Arthritis, in: A.M. Lynge Pedersen (Ed.), Oral Infections and General Health: From Molecule to Chairside, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 45–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lung Cancer.

Blog post
T. Hale, Extinct Baby Bird Has Been Stuck in Amber For 100 Million Years, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Year 2000 Computing Crisis: A Testing Guide (Supersedes AIMD-10.1.21), U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.L. Steffan, An examination of the correlation between ninth grade mathematics grades and student performance on the mathematics portion of the California high school exit examination, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GEORGE GENE GUSTINES; Compiled by RACHEL LEE HARRIS, Comic Strips Think Pink, New York Times. (2010) C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLung Cancer
AbbreviationLung Cancer
ISSN (print)0169-5002
ScopeCancer Research
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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