How to format your references using the Lung Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lung Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.V. Morgan, Comment on “Determining chondritic impactor size from the marine osmium isotope record,” Science. 321 (2008) 1158; author reply 1158.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Nemoto, T. Finkel, Redox regulation of forkhead proteins through a p66shc-dependent signaling pathway, Science. 295 (2002) 2450–2452.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Bockrath, C. Ballhaus, A. Holzheid, Fractionation of the platinum-group elements during mantle melting, Science. 305 (2004) 1951–1953.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Kostić, I. Franović, M. Perc, N. Vasović, K. Todorović, Triggered dynamics in a model of different fault creep regimes, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5401.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Dubuisson, Tracking with Particle Filter for High-Dimensional Observation and State Spaces, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
J. Liu, J. Wu, Y. Yao, T. Nishida, eds., Active Media Technology: 5th International Conference, AMT 2009, Beijing, China, October 22-24, 2009. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Yorke, L. Vidovich, Theoretical Frameworks for Policy Analysis, in: L. Vidovich (Ed.), Learning Standards and the Assessment of Quality in Higher Education: Contested Policy Trajectories, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 69–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lung Cancer.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, SpaceX May Start Launching Rockets Again On December 16, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Helium Program: Key Developments Since the Early 1990s and Future Considerations, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.L. Best, Assistant Principals and Reform: A Socialization Paradox?, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, Bill Penalizes Adults in Under-Age Drinking, New York Times. (2007) LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLung Cancer
AbbreviationLung Cancer
ISSN (print)0169-5002
ScopeCancer Research
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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