How to format your references using the Lung Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lung Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Bergman, Damned if you don’t, Nature. 435 (2005) 1002.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Zhao, S.W. Running, Drought-induced reduction in global terrestrial net primary production from 2000 through 2009, Science. 329 (2010) 940–943.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. Tatano, T. Shimizu, H. Tomioka, Unique macrophages different from M1/M2 macrophages inhibit T cell mitogenesis while upregulating Th17 polarization, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4146.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G.M. Ruiz, T.K. Rawlings, F.C. Dobbs, L.A. Drake, T. Mullady, A. Huq, R.R. Colwell, Global spread of microorganisms by ships, Nature. 408 (2000) 49–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Lehto, X. Hou, Chemistry and Analysis of Radionuclides, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2010.
An edited book
C. Tollefsen, ed., Artificial Nutrition and Hydration: The New Catholic Debate, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
S.A. Belmonte, L.S. Mayorga, C.N. Tomes, The Molecules of Sperm Exocytosis, in: M.G. Buffone (Ed.), Sperm Acrosome Biogenesis and Function During Fertilization, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 71–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lung Cancer.

Blog post
T. Hale, Baby Giant Squid Caught In Japan, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, GSA’s Effort to Develop Year 2000 Business Continuity and Contingency Plans for Telecommunications Systems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.L. Klimek, Antigone’s reach: A feminine model for today’s businesswoman, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, Mayor Lifts Ban for Chinese New Year Fireworks Shows, New York Times. (2003) B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLung Cancer
AbbreviationLung Cancer
ISSN (print)0169-5002
ScopeCancer Research
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles