How to format your references using the Practical Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Practical Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Alvarez M. Time for a change. Nature 2007;445:682.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Zhang S, Bryant DA. The tricarboxylic acid cycle in cyanobacteria. Science 2011;334:1551–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Amodeo GA, Rudolph MJ, Tong L. Crystal structure of the heterotrimer core of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK homologue SNF1. Nature 2007;449:492–5.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Snippert HJ, Haegebarth A, Kasper M, et al. Lgr6 marks stem cells in the hair follicle that generate all cell lineages of the skin. Science 2010;327:1385–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Hopkins BR. Starting and Managing a Nonprofit Organization. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2009.
An edited book
1
Noah SA, Abdullah A, Arshad H, et al., editors. Soft Computing Applications and Intelligent Systems: Second International Multi-Conference on Artificial Intelligence Technology, M-CAIT 2013, Shah Alam, August 28-29, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Mishra MK, Islam SKH, Biswas GP. Design of ECC-Based ElGamal Encryption Scheme Using CL-PKC. In: Biswas GP, Mukhopadhyay S, eds. Recent Advances in Information Technology: RAIT-2014 Proceedings. New Delhi: : Springer India 2014. 27–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Practical Neurology.

Blog post
1
Fang J. Severe Droughts Are Messing With A Forest’s Ability To Help With Climate Change. IFLScience. 2015.https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/severe-droughts-are-messing-forests-ability-help-climate-change/ (accessed 30 Oct 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Management Improvements Essential for Key Automated Systems at the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Waldron KD. The Influence of Leadership Emotional Intelligence on Employee Engagement. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Saslow L. Power Hangs in Balance In Nassau Legislature. New York Times. 2007;:14LI7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePractical Neurology
AbbreviationPract. Neurol.
ISSN (print)1474-7758
ISSN (online)1474-7766
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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