How to format your references using the Practical Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Practical Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Sweatt JD. Neuroscience. Creating stable memories. Science 2011;331:869–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Smock RG, Gierasch LM. Sending signals dynamically. Science 2009;324:198–203.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Bino A, Ardon M, Shirman E. Formation of a carbon-carbon triple bond by coupling reactions in aqueous solution. Science 2005;308:234–5.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Rini M, Magnes B-Z, Pines E, et al. Real-time observation of bimodal proton transfer in acid-base pairs in water. Science 2003;301:349–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Bruen GO. WHOIS Running the Internet. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc 2015.
An edited book
1
Kalia S, Fu S-Y, editors. Polymers at Cryogenic Temperatures. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Nakov P. Web as a Corpus: Going Beyond the n-gram. In: Braslavski P, Karpov N, Worring M, et al., eds. Information Retrieval: 8th Russian Summer School, RuSSIR 2014, Nizhniy, Novgorod, Russia, August 18-22, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2015. 185–228.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Practical Neurology.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. Mystery In Northern Scotland That Is Baffling Multiple Sclerosis Experts. IFLScience. 2016.https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/mystery-northern-scotland-baffling-multiple-sclerosis-experts/ (accessed 30 Oct 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Preliminary Observations on Past, Present, and Future. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Templeton TH. The Impact of Emergent Information and Communication Technology on Peacebuilding. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1
Kelly M. Clinton’s Chief of Staff Ponders Undefined Post. New York Times. 1992;:B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePractical Neurology
AbbreviationPract. Neurol.
ISSN (print)1474-7758
ISSN (online)1474-7766
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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