How to format your references using the Practical Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Practical Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Grebe M. Plant biology. Enhanced: growth by auxin: when a weed needs acid. Science 2005;310:60–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Liu CC, Arkin AP. Cell biology. The case for RNA. Science 2010;330:1185–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Sweeney KE, Roering JJ, Ellis C. GEOMORPHOLOGY. Experimental evidence for hillslope control of landscape scale. Science 2015;349:51–3.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Bradbury EJ, Moon LDF, Popat RJ, et al. Chondroitinase ABC promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Nature 2002;416:636–40.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
English JF. The Global Future of English Studies. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2012.
An edited book
1
Sidorenko A, editor. Fundamentals of Superconducting Nanoelectronics. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Carayannis EG, Popescu D, Pirzadeh A. The Culture of Information and the Information of Culture. In: Bast G, Carayannis EG, Campbell DFJ, eds. Arts, Research, Innovation and Society. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2015. 53–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Practical Neurology.

Blog post
1
Hamilton K. How We Discovered That A Common Antibiotic May Be Able To Treat Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. IFLScience. 2017.https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/how-we-discovered-that-a-common-antibiotic-may-be-able-to-treat-post-traumatic-stress-disorder/ (accessed 30 Oct 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: Highway Pavement Design Guide Is Outdated. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Hensley AL. Gender, personality, and coping: Unraveling gender in military post -deployment physical and mental wellness. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Murphy MJO. Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times. 2015;:C30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePractical Neurology
AbbreviationPract. Neurol.
ISSN (print)1474-7758
ISSN (online)1474-7766
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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