How to format your references using the Poultry Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Poultry Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hurtgen, M. T. 2012. Geochemistry. The marine sulfur cycle, revisited. Science 337:305–306.
A journal article with 2 authors
McMichael, A., and P. Klenerman. 2002. HIV/AIDS. HLA leaves its footprints on HIV. Science 296:1410–1411.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mavrodiev, P., C. J. Tessone, and F. Schweitzer. 2013. Quantifying the effects of social influence. Sci. Rep. 3:1360.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Koga, K., G. T. Gao, H. Tanaka, and X. C. Zeng. 2001. Formation of ordered ice nanotubes inside carbon nanotubes. Nature 412:802–805.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duchon, C., and R. Hale. 2012. Time Series Analysis in Meteorology and Climatology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Fonseca, R. J., G.-W. Weber, and J. Telhada (Eds). 2016. Computational Management Science: State of the Art 2014. 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramanathan, K., and S. U. Guan. 2008. Recursive Pattern based Hybrid Supervised Training.Pages 129–156 in Engineering Evolutionary Intelligent Systems. Abraham, A., Grosan, C., Pedrycz, W., eds. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Poultry Science.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2014. Regenerating Plastic Oozes Clot-Like Goo. IFLScience Available at (verified 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Information Technology: Executive office for U.S. Attorneys Needs to Institutionalize Key IT Management Disciplines. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
David, S. Z. 2016. A Practical Approach for Formation Damage Control in Both Miscible and Immiscible CO2 Gas Flooding in Asphaltenic Crude Systems Using Water Slugs and Injection Parameters.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., and J. Longman. 2014. Elite Marathoner’s Failed Test Is Another Setback for Kenya. New York Times:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hurtgen, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (McMichael and Klenerman, 2002; Hurtgen, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McMichael and Klenerman, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Koga et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePoultry Science
AbbreviationPoult. Sci.
ISSN (print)0032-5791
ISSN (online)1525-3171
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Medicine

Other styles