How to format your references using the Poultry Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Poultry Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grinnell, F. 2015. Rethink our approach to assessing risk. Nature 522:257.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vaquero, L. M., and M. Cebrian. 2013. The rich club phenomenon in the classroom. Sci. Rep. 3:1174.
A journal article with 3 authors
Milinski, M., D. Semmann, and H.-J. Krambeck. 2002. Reputation helps solve the “tragedy of the commons.” Nature 415:424–426.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schwoerer, H., S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäckel, K.-U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov. 2006. Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets. Nature 439:445–448.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vogel, W., and H. Kalb. 2010. Large-Scale Solar Thermal Power. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Schmüser, P. 2014. Free-Electron Lasers in the Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regime: Physical Principles, Experimental Results, Technical Realization (M Dohlus, J Rossbach, and C Behrens, Eds.). 2nd ed. 2014. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Martínez-Díez, J. M. 2014. Complex Fractures of the Distal Radius.Pages 29–35 in Complex Fractures of the Limbs: Diagnosis and Management. Rodríguez-Merchán, E.C., Rubio-Suárez, J.C., eds. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Poultry Science.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2014. This Sri Lankan Newspaper REPELS Mosquitoes. IFLScience Available at (verified 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Nanotechnology: Better Guidance Is Needed to Ensure Accurate Reporting of Federal Research Focused on Environmental, Health, and Safety Risks. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez, D. 2017. Numerical Simulation of a Flowfield Around a Hypersonic Missile with Lateral Jets.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. 2001. Salvage Teams Begin to Raise Russian Sub. New York Times:A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grinnell, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Vaquero and Cebrian, 2013; Grinnell, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vaquero and Cebrian, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Schwoerer et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePoultry Science
AbbreviationPoult. Sci.
ISSN (print)0032-5791
ISSN (online)1525-3171
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Medicine

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