How to format your references using the Post-Soviet Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Post-Soviet Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, Paul. 2002. “Empire Building: Vienna.” Nature 416 (6881): 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jiggins, Francis M., and Gregory D. D. Hurst. 2011. “Microbiology. Rapid Insect Evolution by Symbiont Transfer.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 332 (6026): 185–186.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bhavsar, Amit P., Julian A. Guttman, and B. Brett Finlay. 2007. “Manipulation of Host-Cell Pathways by Bacterial Pathogens.” Nature 449 (7164): 827–834.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhou, Xu-Jie, Yuan-Yuan Qi, Ping Hou, Ji-Cheng Lv, Su-Fang Shi, Li-Jun Liu, Na Zhao, and Hong Zhang. 2014. “Cumulative Effects of Variants Identified by Genome-Wide Association Studies in IgA Nephropathy.” Scientific Reports 4 (May): 4904.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Edgerton, Michael. 2013. A Practitioner’s Guide to Effective Maritime and Port Security. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sun, Jiadong, Wenhai Jiao, Haitao Wu, and Mingquan Lu, eds. 2014. China Satellite Navigation Conference (CSNC) 2014 Proceedings: Volume I. Vol. 303. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bilo, Rob A. C., Simon G. F. Robben, and Rick R. van Rijn. 2010. “Clavicles, Scapulas, Sternum, Vertebrae and Pelvis.” In Forensic Aspects of Pediatric Fractures: Differentiating Accidental Trauma from Child Abuse, edited by Simon G. F. Robben and Rick R. Rijn, 67–78. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Post-Soviet Affairs.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Bacterial Communication Signals Altered To Battle Pancreatic Cancer.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. V-22 Osprey Aircraft: Assessments Needed to Address Operational and Cost Concerns to Define Future Investments. GAO-09-692T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adams, Andy Alan. 2009. “A Study of the Attitudes and Opinions of Southwest Missouri Educators Regarding the Value and Outcome of the Performance Based Teacher Evaluation Process.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz, Michael. 2017. “Rikers Inmate Spent Brief Escape Hiding in Bushes.” New York Times, July 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2002; Jiggins and Hurst 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jiggins and Hurst 2011)
  • Three authors: (Bhavsar, Guttman, and Finlay 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhou et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePost-Soviet Affairs
ISSN (print)1060-586X
ISSN (online)1938-2855
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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