How to format your references using the Post-Soviet Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Post-Soviet Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Polaszek, Andrew. 2005. “A Universal Register for Animal Names.” Nature 437 (7058): 477.
A journal article with 2 authors
Parker, Joanne L., and Simon Newstead. 2014. “Molecular Basis of Nitrate Uptake by the Plant Nitrate Transporter NRT1.1.” Nature 507 (7490): 68–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rubin, K. H., C. H. Fletcher 3rd, and C. Sherman. 2000. “Fossiliferous Lana’i Deposits Formed by Multiple Events Rather than a Single Giant Tsunami.” Nature 408 (6813): 675–681.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Milanovic, Maja, Dorothy N. Y. Fan, Dimitri Belenki, J. Henry M. Däbritz, Zhen Zhao, Yong Yu, Jan R. Dörr, et al. 2018. “Senescence-Associated Reprogramming Promotes Cancer Stemness.” Nature 553 (7686): 96–100.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kagan, Eugene, and Irad Ben-Gal. 2013. Probabilistic Search for Tracking Targets. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Chakravorti, Sivaji. 2013. Recent Trends in the Condition Monitoring of Transformers: Theory, Implementation and Analysis. Edited by Debangshu Dey and Biswendu Chatterjee. Power Systems. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, Fang. 2006. “Delineating the TGF-β/Smad-Induced Cytostatic Response.” In Smad Signal Transduction: Smads in Proliferation, Differentiation and Disease, edited by Peter Ten Dijke and Carl-Henrik Heldin, 75–91. Proteins and Cell Regulation. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Post-Soviet Affairs.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2016. “The Same Gene Blackens Moths And Colors Butterflies.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. U.S. Merchant Marine Academy: Additional Actions Needed to Establish Effective Internal Control. GAO-12-369. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, Nicolas J. 2017. “Queered.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2012. “’04 Drug Retest May Give U.S. Olympic Gold.” New York Times, December 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Polaszek 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Polaszek 2005; Parker and Newstead 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Parker and Newstead 2014)
  • Three authors: (Rubin, Fletcher, and Sherman 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Milanovic et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titlePost-Soviet Affairs
ISSN (print)1060-586X
ISSN (online)1938-2855
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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