How to format your references using the Post-Soviet Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Post-Soviet Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, Colin. 2015. “Economic Divide Taking Toll on European Science.” Nature 517 (7533): 123.
A journal article with 2 authors
Veronin, Michael A., and Bi-Botti C. Youan. 2004. “Medicine. Magic Bullet Gone Astray: Medications and the Internet.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5683): 481.
A journal article with 3 authors
Norris, David J., Alexander L. Efros, and Steven C. Erwin. 2008. “Doped Nanocrystals.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319 (5871): 1776–1779.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Fabbri, Filippo, Enzo Rotunno, Laura Lazzarini, Naoki Fukata, and Giancarlo Salviati. 2014. “Visible and Infra-Red Light Emission in Boron-Doped Wurtzite Silicon Nanowires.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3603.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Frank, Patricia, and M. Alice Ottoboni. 2011. The Dose Makes the Poison. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Marquardt, Wolfgang. 2010. OntoCAPE: A Re-Usable Ontology for Chemical Process Engineering. Edited by Jan Morbach, Andreas Wiesner, and Aidong Yang. RWTHedition. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chubarikov, Vladimir N. 2006. “On the Hilbert-Kamke and the Vinogradov Problems in Additive Number Theory.” In Number Theory: Tradition and Modernization, edited by Wenpeng Zhang and Yoshio Tanigawa, 27–37. Developments in Mathematics. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Post-Soviet Affairs.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “Stem Cells Regenerate Monkey Hearts.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1979. Current National Issues Involving Science and Technology. 094310. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Campbell, Alesia J. 2012. “History Transformed: Sengoku Daimyo in Japanese Popular Media.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goldstein, Joseph. 2017. “Daughter of Slain Police Officer Is Born, Two Years After Her Father’s Death.” New York Times, July 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain 2015; Veronin and Youan 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Veronin and Youan 2004)
  • Three authors: (Norris, Efros, and Erwin 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Fabbri et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePost-Soviet Affairs
ISSN (print)1060-586X
ISSN (online)1938-2855
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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