How to format your references using the Post-Soviet Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Post-Soviet Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Katz, D. L. 2014. “Perspective: Obesity Is Not a Disease.” Nature 508 (7496): S57.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krushelnick, Karl, and Steve Cowley. 2005. “Physics. Reduced Turbulence and New Opportunities for Fusion.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5740): 1502–1503.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vafabakhsh, Reza, Joshua Levitz, and Ehud Y. Isacoff. 2015. “Conformational Dynamics of a Class C G-Protein-Coupled Receptor.” Nature 524 (7566): 497–501.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Johansen, Anders, Jeffrey S. Oishi, Mordecai-Mark Mac Low, Hubert Klahr, Thomas Henning, and Andrew Youdin. 2007. “Rapid Planetesimal Formation in Turbulent Circumstellar Disks.” Nature 448 (7157): 1022–1025.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meyer, Michael D. 2016. Transportation Planning Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kole, Chittaranjan, ed. 2011. Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources: Plantation and Ornamental Crops. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ahmed, Abdalsalam, Abdulsalam Mansor, and Abdulgani Albagul. 2015. “Design and Fabrication of an Automatic Sprinkler Fire Fighting System.” In Design and Modeling of Mechanical Systems - II: Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Design and Modeling of Mechanical Systems, CMSM’2015, March 23-25, Hammamet, Tunisia, edited by Mnaouar Chouchane, Tahar Fakhfakh, Hachmi Ben Daly, Nizar Aifaoui, and Fakher Chaari, 41–49. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Post-Soviet Affairs.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Urban Algae Farm Gobbles Up Highway Air Pollution.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites: Further Actions Needed to Effectively Manage Risks. GAO-08-183T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nevin, Miles J. 2017. “Addressing the Learning Outcomes and Assessment Methods Associated with Participation in Student Government Associations: A Qualitative Study of California Community Colleges.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, Peter, and Ian Fisher. 2017. “Trump Stresses Palestinian Deal.” New York Times, May 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Katz 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Katz 2014; Krushelnick and Cowley 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krushelnick and Cowley 2005)
  • Three authors: (Vafabakhsh, Levitz, and Isacoff 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Johansen et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePost-Soviet Affairs
ISSN (print)1060-586X
ISSN (online)1938-2855
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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