How to format your references using the Post-Soviet Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Post-Soviet Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elser, James J. 2011. “Geochemistry. A World Awash with Nitrogen.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6062): 1504–1505.
A journal article with 2 authors
Starr, Daniel A., and Min Han. 2002. “Role of ANC-1 in Tethering Nuclei to the Actin Cytoskeleton.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5592): 406–409.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chaudhuri, Ovijit, Sapun H. Parekh, and Daniel A. Fletcher. 2007. “Reversible Stress Softening of Actin Networks.” Nature 445 (7125): 295–298.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Shav-Tal, Yaron, Xavier Darzacq, Shailesh M. Shenoy, Dahlene Fusco, Susan M. Janicki, David L. Spector, and Robert H. Singer. 2004. “Dynamics of Single MRNPs in Nuclei of Living Cells.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304 (5678): 1797–1800.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Calvello, Angelo A. 2009. Environmental Alpha. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tan, Ying, and Yuhui Shi, eds. 2016. Data Mining and Big Data: First International Conference, DMBD 2016, Bali, Indonesia, June 25-30, 2016. Proceedings. Vol. 9714. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Tröhler, Daniel. 2007. “The New Languages and Old Institutions: Problems of Implementing New School Governance.” In Educational Research: Why ‘What Works’ Doesn’t Work, edited by Paul Smeyers and Marc Depaepe, 65–80. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Post-Soviet Affairs.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2015. “What’s The Most Dangerous Contact Sport In The World?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1981. Problems Plague National Weather Service ADP System. CED-82-6. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
David, Sergio Z. 2016. “A Practical Approach for Formation Damage Control in Both Miscible and Immiscible CO2 Gas Flooding in Asphaltenic Crude Systems Using Water Slugs and Injection Parameters.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. 2017. “Their Run Together May Be Nearing an End.” New York Times, June 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Elser 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Elser 2011; Starr and Han 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Starr and Han 2002)
  • Three authors: (Chaudhuri, Parekh, and Fletcher 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Shav-Tal et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePost-Soviet Affairs
ISSN (print)1060-586X
ISSN (online)1938-2855
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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