How to format your references using the Post-Soviet Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Post-Soviet Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gregg, J. Marty. 2012. “Applied Physics. Stressing Ferroelectrics.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 336 (6077): 41–42.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dye, Christopher, and Mario Raviglione. 2013. “Perspective: Weigh All TB Risks.” Nature 502 (7470): S13.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nudleman, Eric, Daniel Wall, and Dale Kaiser. 2005. “Cell-to-Cell Transfer of Bacterial Outer Membrane Lipoproteins.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5731): 125–127.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Saleh, Maya, John C. Mathison, Melissa K. Wolinski, Steve J. Bensinger, Patrick Fitzgerald, Nathalie Droin, Richard J. Ulevitch, Douglas R. Green, and Donald W. Nicholson. 2006. “Enhanced Bacterial Clearance and Sepsis Resistance in Caspase-12-Deficient Mice.” Nature 440 (7087): 1064–1068.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, Peter G., and Thomas Chan. 2011. The Chinese Yuan. 2 Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Huang, De-Shuang, Yong Gan, Phalguni Gupta, and M. Michael Gromiha, eds. 2012. Advanced Intelligent Computing Theories and Applications. With Aspects of Artificial Intelligence: 7th International Conference, ICIC 2011, Zhengzhou, China, August 11-14, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 6839. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kari, Jarkko. 2009. “Structure of Reversible Cellular Automata.” In Unconventional Computation: 8th International Conference, UC 2009, Ponta Delgada, Portugal, September 7-11, 2009. Proceedings, edited by Cristian S. Calude, José Félix Costa, Nachum Dershowitz, Elisabete Freire, and Grzegorz Rozenberg, 6–6. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Post-Soviet Affairs.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. “Ecotourism Could Be Changing Animals’ Behavior For The Worse.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Air Traffic Control: FAA Uses Earned Value Techniques to Help Manage Information Technology Acquisitions, but Needs to Clarify Policy and Strengthen Oversight. GAO-08-756. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lauterbach, Jeffrey Robert. 2017. “Golf in the Collective: Playing in Liminal Space.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, Ben. 2016. “Helping Hands for Damaged Limbs.” New York Times, September 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gregg 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Gregg 2012; Dye and Raviglione 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dye and Raviglione 2013)
  • Three authors: (Nudleman, Wall, and Kaiser 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Saleh et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePost-Soviet Affairs
ISSN (print)1060-586X
ISSN (online)1938-2855
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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