How to format your references using the Journal of CO2 Utilization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of CO2 Utilization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Kaplan, Show us the money, Nature. 457 (2009) 624–625.
A journal article with 2 authors
E. Rignot, S.S. Jacobs, Rapid bottom melting widespread near Antarctic Ice Sheet grounding lines, Science. 296 (2002) 2020–2023.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.S. Yoo, C. Bais, I. Greenwald, Crosstalk between the EGFR and LIN-12/Notch pathways in C. elegans vulval development, Science. 303 (2004) 663–666.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Shepherd, D. Wingham, T. Payne, P. Skvarca, Larsen ice shelf has progressively thinned, Science. 302 (2003) 856–859.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Binnie, Linux Server Security, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2016.
An edited book
D. Gorter, V. Zenotz, J. Cenoz, eds., Minority Languages and Multilingual Education: Bridging the Local and the Global, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
B. Poulsen, Human Archives: Historians’ Methodologies and Past Marine Resource Use, in: K. Schwerdtner Máñez, B. Poulsen (Eds.), Perspectives on Oceans Past, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2016: pp. 71–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of CO2 Utilization.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Treating ‘Stage 0’ Breast Cancer Doesn’t Always Save Women’s Lives So Should We Screen For It?, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, GSA’s Telecommunications Procurement Program Requires Comprehensive Planning and Management, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Cuellar, Impact of boring insects on the reproductive success of Hesperoyucca whipplei (Our Lord’s candle), Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Kenigsberg, Hounds of Love, New York Times. (2017) C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of CO2 Utilization
ISSN (print)2212-9820

Other styles